Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
At times, deposits held with financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), which provides basic deposit coverage with limits up to $250,000 per owner. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had $6,753,981 in excess of the insurance limits. The Company has not experienced any such losses in these accounts.
At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, three customers accounted for 78% and 69%, respectively, of net trade accounts receivable. Three customers accounted for approximately 72% and 48% of net revenue for the three month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and 58% and 46% of net revenue for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company made purchases from three suppliers which represented approximately 48% and 53% for the three month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and 46% and 47% for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit and money market accounts. The Company considers all highly liquid temporary cash investments with an initial maturity of three months or less when acquired to be cash equivalents. Management believes that the carrying amounts of cash equivalents approximate their fair value because of the short maturity period.
Accounts receivable are presented at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable and unbilled receivables. Unbilled receivables include cost and gross profit earned in excess of billing. The allowance for doubtful accounts is an estimate to cover the losses resulting from the inability of customers to make payments on their outstanding balances and unbilled receivables. In estimating the required allowance, management considers the overall quality and aging of the accounts receivable, specific customer circumstances, current economic trends, and historical experience with collections. At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the allowance for doubtful accounts is $97,784 and $2,101, respectively.
Revenues earned in excess of related billings are recorded as an asset on the balance sheet, as unbilled receivables. Unbilled receivables as of September 30, 2018, were $31,836.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value determined on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company uses the average cost method for purposes of determining cost, which approximates the first-in, first-out method.
The Company establishes reserves on its inventories to write-down the carrying value of its estimated obsolete or excess inventories to estimated net realizable value based upon observations of historical usage and assumptions about future demand and market conditions. In addition, the Company considers changes in the market value of components in determining the net realizable value of its inventory. Inventory reserves are considered permanent adjustments to the cost basis of the inventories and are not typically reversed until the specific inventories are sold or otherwise disposed.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, other than leasehold improvements, are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are recorded at cost and are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the estimated useful life of the related asset. Tooling and test equipment includes capitalized labor costs associated with the development of the related tooling and test equipment. Costs incurred for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred, and expenditures for major replacements and improvements are capitalized. Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation and amortization of disposed assets are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in other expense, net.
Goodwill relates to the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is not amortized, but instead the Company assesses possible impairment of goodwill on December 31, of each year or when an event occurs that may trigger such a review. Determining whether a triggering event has occurred involves significant judgment by the Company. Management assesses goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, and has determined that the Company has two reporting units. In assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company assesses relevant events and circumstances that may impact the fair value and the carrying amount of a reporting unit. The identification of relevant events and circumstances and how these may impact a reporting unit’s fair value or carrying amount involve significant judgments by management. These judgments include the consideration of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance and events which are specific to the Company. Each factor is assessed to determine whether it impacts the impairment test positively or negatively, and the magnitude of any such impact.
After the qualitative assessment, an impairment testing is then done, which entails a two-step process. In the first step, the fair value of each reporting unit is compared to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to that unit, then goodwill is not impaired and no further testing is required.
If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the second step is performed in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill and an impairment loss is recorded for an amount equal to the difference between the implied fair value and the carrying value of the goodwill. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit and goodwill is judgmental and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions.
Based upon operations and market considerations, no event occurred to trigger a review of goodwill in management’s determination and thus, no impairment loss has occurred during the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. There can be no assurance, however, that market conditions will not change or demand for the Company’s products will continue, which could result in an impairment of goodwill in the future.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews the recoverability of its other long-lived assets, such as property and equipment and definite lived intangible assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate the carrying value of the asset or asset group may not be recoverable. The assessment for possible impairment is based on the Company’s ability to recover the carrying value of the asset or asset group from the expected future pre-tax cash flows, undiscounted and without interest charges, from the related operations.
If the aggregate of the net cash flows is less than the carrying value of such assets, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between estimated fair value and carrying value. The determination and measurement of impairment of long-lived assets requires management to estimate future cash flows and the fair value of long-lived assets.
Management determined that there were no impairment charges to be recognized during the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. There can be no assurance, however, that market conditions will not change or demand for the Company’s products will continue, which could result in an impairment of long-lived assets in the future.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 605. Accordingly, revenue from the sale of products is recognized when there is evidence of an arrangement, the selling price is fixed or determinable, title and risk of loss has transferred to the customer, any installation or service obligations have been satisfied, and collection is reasonably assured. Net revenue includes deductions for customer discounts and actual and estimated returns. All amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as net sales.
Customer agreements include one vendor managed inventory program. Pursuant to Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 13.A.3.a, the Company recognizes revenue under this arrangement when (i) risks of ownership have passed to the customer; (ii) the customer's commitment to purchase the goods is fixed; (iii) there is a fixed schedule for delivery of the goods that is reasonable and consistent with the customer's business purpose; (iv) the Company does not have any specific performance obligations such that the earning process is not complete; (v) the ordered goods been segregated from the Company's inventory and are not subject to being used to fill other orders; and (vi) the product is complete and ready for shipment. Also, such arrangement must be requested by the customer and the customer has explained a substantial business purpose for the arrangement. Management also considers whether the customer's custodial risks are insured and whether modifications to the Company's normal billing and credit terms were required.
The Company recorded revenue from product sales that are held in vendor managed inventory under these agreements of $3,472,699 and $2,774,464, for the three month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $6,386,550 and $7,620,935 for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, $869,554 and $996,588, respectively, of products sold through those dates were held by the Company in the vendor management program.
Revenues on certain fixed-price contracts where we provide engineering services, prototypes and completed products are recognized over the contract term based on the percentage of completion or based upon milestones delivered that are provided during the period and compared to the total estimated development and milestone goals to be provided over the entire contract. These services require that we perform significant, extensive and complex design, development, modification or implementation of our customers’ systems. Performance will often extend over long periods of time, and our right to receive future payment depends on our future performance in accordance with the agreement. Recognized revenue using the percentage of completion accounting method during the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2018, was $187,702, respectively.
The percentage-of-completion methodology involves recognizing probable and reasonably estimable revenue using the percentage of services completed, on a current cumulative cost to estimate total cost basis, using a reasonably consistent profit margin over the period. Due to the long-term nature of these projects, developing the estimates of costs often requires significant judgment. Factors that must be considered in estimating the progress of work completed and ultimate cost of the projects include, but are not limited to, the availability of labor and labor productivity, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed and the impact of delayed performance. If changes occur in delivery, productivity or other factors used in developing the estimates of costs or revenues, we revise our cost and revenue estimates, which may result in increases or decreases in revenues and costs, and such revisions are reflected in earnings in the period in which the facts that give rise to that revision become known.
Related billings that are in excess of revenue earned are deferred and recorded as a liability on the balance sheet until the related services are provided. Deferred revenue as of September 30, 2018 was $57,905. The Company recognizes revenues for non-refundable, upfront implementation fees on a straight-line basis over the period beginning with initiation of ongoing services through the end of the contract term.
The Company offers product warranties that generally extend for one year from the date of sale. Such warranties require the Company to repair or replace defective product returned to the Company during the warranty period at no cost to the customer. The Company records an estimate for warranty‑related costs at the time of sale based on its historical and estimated future product return rates and expected repair or replacement costs (Note 6).
While such costs have historically been within management’s expectations and the provisions established, unexpected changes in failure rates could have a material adverse impact on the Company, requiring additional warranty reserves and could adversely affect the Company’s gross profit and gross margins.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company's shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold for all periods presented.
OSS GmbH operates as an extension of OSS’s domestic operations. The functional currency of OSS GmbH is the Euro. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are remeasured to the functional currency at the average exchange rate in effect during the period. At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company accounts for employee and director share-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation”. Under ASC 718, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant).
All transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments to non-employees are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date used to determine the estimated fair value of the equity instrument issued is the earlier of the date on which the third-party performance is complete or the date on which it is probable that performance will occur.
Employee and director stock-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the value of the portion of stock-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest during the period. Given that stock-based compensation expense recognized in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, it has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. The Company’s estimated average forfeiture rates are based on historical forfeiture experience and estimated future forfeitures.
Compensation cost for stock awards, which include restricted stock units (“RSUs”), is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service period. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date.
The estimated fair value of common stock option awards is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires subjective assumptions regarding future stock price volatility and expected time to exercise, along with assumptions about the risk-free interest rate and expected dividends, all of which affect the estimated fair values of the Company’s common stock option awards. Given a lack of historical stock option exercises, the expected term of options granted is calculated as the average of the weighted vesting period and the contractual expiration date of the option.
This calculation is based on a method permitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission in instances where the vesting and exercise terms of options granted meet certain conditions and where limited historical exercise data is available. The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the common stock of comparable public companies that operate in similar industries as the Company.
The risk-free rate selected to value any particular grant is based on the U.S. Treasury rate that corresponds to the expected term of the grant effective as of the date of the grant. The expected dividend assumption is based on the Company’s history and management’s expectation regarding dividend payouts. Compensation expense for common stock option awards with graded vesting schedules is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the last separately vesting portion of the award, provided that the accumulated cost recognized as of any date at least equals the value of the vested portion of the award.
If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying vested or unvested stock-based awards, the Company may be required to accelerate, increase or cancel any remaining unearned stock-based compensation expense, or record additional expense for vested stock-based awards. Future stock-based compensation expense and unearned stock- based compensation may increase to the extent that the Company grants additional common stock options or other stock-based awards.
Debt discounts, which originated from the relative fair value of the warrants issued in connection with note payable and related-party notes payable during 2016 and 2015 (Note 8), are recorded against note payable and related-party notes payable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Amortization of the debt discounts are calculated using the straight-line method over the term of the notes which approximates the effective interest method and are recorded in interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. All notes with warrants were retired in February 2018, and the remaining debt discount balance of $24,830 was recognized as interest expense in February 2018.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in marketing and selling expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Advertising costs for the three month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 were $20,790 and $7,942, respectively, and $65,170 and $104,179 for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenditures are expensed in the period incurred. Research and development expenses primarily consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation, as well as consulting expenses and allocated facilities and other overhead costs. Research and development activities include the development of new technologies, features and functionality in support of the Company’s products and customer needs.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the consolidated financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
Under ASC Topic 740, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Additionally, ASC Topic 740 provides requirements for derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, California and Germany and has open tax statutes for federal taxes for the years ended December 31, 2015 through 2017. For California, the open tax statutes are for years December 31, 2014 through 2017 and for Germany the open years include December 31, 2016 and 2017.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act reduces the corporate tax rate to 21%, effective January 1, 2018. Consequently, the Company has recorded a decrease related to deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as of December 31, 2017. Except for this adjustment, the Company does not foresee material changes to its gross liability of uncertain tax positions within the next twelve months.
Interest expense consists primarily of interest associated with the Company’s issued debt including the amortization of debt discounts. The Company recognizes the amortization of debt discounts and the amortization of interest costs using a straight-line method which approximates the effective interest method.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted-average shares and dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Dilutive potential shares consist of dilutive shares issuable and the exercise or vesting of outstanding stock options and warrants, respectively, computed using the treasury stock method. During a period where a net loss is incurred, dilutive potential shares are excluded from the computation of dilutive net loss per share, as inclusion is anti-dilutive.
On February 1, 2018, in connection with the Company’s initial public offering, the Company’s outstanding Series A, Series B, and Series C, Preferred Stock was automatically converted to common stock, par value $0.0001.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in FASB Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. ASU 2014-09 implements a five-step process for customer contract revenue recognition that focuses on transfer of control, as opposed to transfer of risk and rewards. The amendment also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows from contracts with customers. Other major provisions include the capitalization and amortization of certain contract costs, ensuring the time value of money is considered in the transaction price, and allowing estimates of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. Entities can transition to the standard either retrospectively or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. On July 9, 2015, the FASB approved amendments deferring the effective date of the standard by one year. The new standard will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019. The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is currently assessing the impact the adoption of ASU 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted. Lessees must apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The modified retrospective approach would not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented. Lessees may not apply a full retrospective transition approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”), which is intended to reduce the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted, provided that all of the amendments are adopted in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-15 on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The amendments in this update clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 will be effective for the Company for the year ending December 31, 2019 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted for transactions that have not been reported in financial statements that have been issued or made available for issuance. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). ASU 2017-04 simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment testing. An entity will no longer determine goodwill impairment by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all of its assets and liabilities as if that reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Instead, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. ASU 2017-04 will be effective for the Company for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company expects the adoption of this guidance will not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting (“ASU 2017-09”), which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in ASC Topic 718. Under the new guidance, modification accounting is required only if the fair value, the vesting conditions, or the classification of the award (as equity or liability) changes as a result of the change in terms or conditions. ASU 2017-09 will be effective for the Company for the year ending December 31, 2019 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted. The Company expects the adoption of this guidance will not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recently implemented accounting pronouncements
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330) ("ASU 2015-11"). The amendments in ASU 2015-11 require that an entity measure inventory within the scope of the standard at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transaction. The amendments in this update more closely align the measurement of inventory in U.S. GAAP with the measurement of inventory in International Financial Reporting Standards. ASU 2015-11 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted ASU No. 2015-11 in the first quarter of 2018, without a material impact to its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2016-09”), which simplified certain aspects of the accounting for stock-based payment transactions, including income taxes, classification of awards and classification in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-09 in the first quarter of 2018, with no impact to its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef