Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Nature of Operations

One Stop Systems, Inc. (“we,” “our,” “OSS,” or the “Company”) was originally incorporated as a California corporation in 1999 after initially being formed as a California limited liability company in 1998. On December 14, 2017, the Company was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in connection with its initial public offering.  The Company designs, manufactures and markets industrial grade computer systems and components that are based on industry standard computer architectures. The Company markets its products to manufacturers of automated equipment used for telecommunications, industrial and military applications.     

During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company formed a new wholly-owned subsidiary in Germany (“OSS GmbH”).  During July 2016, the Company acquired Mission Technologies Group, Inc. (“Magma”) and its operations (Note 2).

In April 2017, the Company and a related entity formed a joint venture named SkyScale, LLC in the State of California (“SkyScale”).  In accordance with the Contribution Agreement, each member contributed $750,000 and received a 50% interest in the joint venture.  The purpose of SkyScale, is to engage in the business of providing high performance computing capabilities as cloud services.

In May 2017, the Company entered into a Technology and Software License Agreement with Western Digital (“WDT”) for their Ion flash storage software.  The agreement provides the Company with the Ion source code and rights to develop and market derivative products.  The Company intends to develop and sell Ion flash storage software with its high-density storage arrays, as well as servicing existing WDT software users (Note 2).

Also, in July 2017, the Company entered in to a Service Agreement with WDT to service their existing customer base that utilizes Ion flash storage software.  The Company also purchased certain equipment from WDT and hired selected employees to assist in the servicing of these existing customers.  Management has determined that the activities and assets acquired from WDT comprise a business as defined in ASC 805-10-55-4 through 55.  Consideration paid by the Company to WDT pursuant to the arrangements described above was $67,000.  In addition, the Company is required to pay prospective royalties to WDT of $2,500 or $5,000 for each sale of the Company’s products that include licensed software.  WDT is obligated to pay the Company for services rendered to support existing WDT software users the amount of $1,400,000 in defined declining quarterly amounts over a three year period.  Management does not believe this business acquisition meets the significance definition provided in Regulation S-X, Rule 210.1-02(w).


Through February 2018, the Company’s primary sources of liquidity came from existing cash; cash generated from operations, a bank revolving line of credit and related party and third party term notes.  Borrowings under the debt agreements were collateralized by substantially all of the Company’s assets and the personal guarantee of its CEO.  During 2017, the Company experienced growing sales and gross profits, a strong order backlog, and increased its line of credit facility.  


On February 1, 2018, the Company completed its initial public offering through the initial sale of 3,800,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $5.00 per share (see Note 8).  Proceeds from the sale were used to retire outstanding debt obligations and provide the Company with requisite working capital.

The combination of continued revenue growth, coupled with an expected improvement in gross margins, cost containment of expenses and funding received from our initial public offering leads management to believe that it is probable that our liquidity will be sufficient to meet our cash requirements for current operations through at least a period of the next twelve months. If necessary, external sources of debt and/or equity financing may be obtained based on management’s history of being able to raise capital. As a result of both management’s plans and current favorable business trends, management believes that the Company has sufficient liquidity to satisfy its anticipated cash requirements for at least the next twelve months.


However, there can be no assurance that our operations will become profitable or that external sources of financing, including the issuance of debt and/or equity securities, will be available at times and on terms acceptable to us, or at all.  The Company’s management prepares budgets and monitors the financial results of the Company as a tool to align liquidity needs to the recurring business requirements.     

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”), as set forth in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”).  Certain prior year balances have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation particularly with the presentation of common stock which is now presented with a par value of $0.0001 per share, in accordance with our reincorporation as a Delaware corporation.

The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017, included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by US GAAP.  The condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 and the balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.  Certain information and note disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information not misleading.  It is suggested that these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited December 31, 2017 consolidated financial statements from which the balance sheet information herein was derived.

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of the results of the Company’s operations and financial position for the interim periods, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for the full year ending December 31, 2018 or for any future period.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of OSS, which includes the results from the Magma acquisition and Ion business combination since their respective dates of acquisition, its wholly-owned subsidiary, OSS GmbH, and the accounts of the joint venture, SkyScale LLC (collectively referred to as the “Company”).  Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

On April 6, 2017, the Company and Jacoma Investments, LLC, an entity owned by our board member Jack Harrison, formed a joint venture, SkyScale, LLC (“SkyScale”), to engage in the business of providing high performance computing capabilities as cloud services.  In accordance with the terms of the contribution agreement, Jacoma Investments, LLC agreed to contribute $750,000 in capital and the Company agreed to contribute $750,000 in the form of credits to purchase equipment, personnel or support services from the Company.  Each party received 50% membership interest in the joint venture.  Management determined that SkyScale is a variable interest entity primarily because it is thinly capitalized and may require additional capital to finance its activities.  

Management also determined that the Company is the primary beneficiary of SkyScale based primarily on the related party nature of SkyScale’s decision-makers and daily business operators.  In Q2 2018, the Company loaned SkyScale $300,000 for operations at an interest rate of 12%, per annum.  At June 30, 2018, the amount owed to the Company was $304,500.  As of June 30, 2018, SkyScale’s significant assets were comprised of cash, cash equivalents and receivables of $94,151 and computer-related equipment and other assets of $682,949, its significant liabilities were comprised of trade accounts payable of $58,079, notes payable of $304,500 and its net members’ equity totaled $414,521.        

Condensed operating results for SkyScale are as follows:




For The Three Month Periods

ended June 30,



For The Six Month Periods

ended June 30,















Net revenue

















Cost of revenue

















Gross margin

















Operating expenses:

















General and administrative

















Marketing and selling

















Research and development

















Total operating expenses

















Loss from operations

















Other income

















Net loss

















The non-controlling interest attributable to SkyScale is shown as a component of equity on the consolidated balance sheets and the share of the loss attributable to the non-controlling interest is shown as a component of profit (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosures of contingent assets, liabilities, and expenses at the date of the consolidated financial statements during the reporting period.  

Significant estimates made by management include, among others, the fair value of net assets of Magma acquired in July 2016 and ION in July 2017, the allowance for doubtful accounts, fair value of stock options and warrants, recoverability of inventories and long-lived assets, and realizability of deferred tax assets.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Concentration Risks

At times, deposits held with financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), which provides basic deposit coverage with limits up to $250,000 per owner.  As of June 30, 2018, the Company had $9,013,171 in excess of the insurance limits.  The Company has not experienced any such losses in these accounts.

At June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, three customers accounted for 64% and 69%, respectively, of net trade accounts receivable. Three customers accounted for approximately 48% and 53% of net revenue for the three month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and 49% and 47% of net revenue for the six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

The Company made purchases from three suppliers which represented approximately 48% and 49% for the three month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively,  and 45% and 46% for the six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and debt instruments. The fair value of the Company’s cash equivalents is determined based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or Level 1 inputs.  The Company recognizes transfers between Levels 1 through 3 of the fair value hierarchy at the beginning of the reporting period.  The fair values of the Company’s variable rate debt instruments approximate its carrying values based upon management’s assessment of the current credit markets.  It is not practicable to estimate the fair value of the Company’s fixed rate instruments (including related party notes payable) due to the private nature of those transactions and the lack of an observable market.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit and money market accounts.  The Company considers all highly liquid temporary cash investments with an initial maturity of three months or less when acquired to be cash equivalents.  Management believes that the carrying amounts of cash equivalents approximate their fair value because of the short maturity period.


Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts.  The allowance for doubtful accounts is an estimate to cover the losses resulting from the inability of customers to make payments on their outstanding balances.  In estimating the required allowance, management considers the overall quality and aging of the accounts receivable, specific customer circumstances, current economic trends, and historical experience with collections.  At June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the allowance for doubtful accounts is $96,532 and $2,101, respectively.


Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value determined on a first-in, first-out basis.  The Company uses the average cost method for purposes of determining cost, which approximates the first-in, first-out method.

The Company establishes reserves on its inventories to write-down the carrying value of its estimated obsolete or excess inventories to estimated net realizable value based upon observations of historical usage and assumptions about future demand and market conditions.  In addition, the Company considers changes in the market value of components in determining the net realizable value of its inventory.  Inventory reserves are considered permanent adjustments to the cost basis of the inventories and are not typically reversed until the specific inventories are sold or otherwise disposed.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment, other than leasehold improvements, are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are recorded at cost and are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the estimated useful life of the related asset.  Tooling and test equipment includes capitalized labor costs associated with the development of the related tooling and test equipment.  Costs incurred for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred, and expenditures for major replacements and improvements are capitalized. Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation and amortization of disposed assets are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in other expense, net.


Goodwill relates to the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination.  Goodwill is not amortized, but instead the Company assesses possible impairment of goodwill on December 31, of each year or when an event occurs that may trigger such a review.  Determining whether a triggering event has occurred involves significant judgment by the Company.  Management assesses goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, and has determined that the Company only has one reporting unit.  In assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company assesses relevant events and circumstances that may impact the fair value and the carrying amount of a reporting unit.  The identification of relevant events and circumstances and how these may impact a reporting unit’s fair value or carrying amount involve significant judgments by management.  These judgments include the consideration of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance and events which are specific to the Company.  Each factor is assessed to determine whether it impacts the impairment test positively or negatively, and the magnitude of any such impact.

After the qualitative assessment, an impairment testing is then done, which entails a two-step process.  In the first step, the fair value of each reporting unit is compared to its carrying value.  If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to that unit, then goodwill is not impaired and no further testing is required.  

If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the second step is performed in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill and an impairment loss is recorded for an amount equal to the difference between the implied fair value and the carrying value of the goodwill.  Determining the fair value of a reporting unit and goodwill is judgmental and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions.

Based upon operations and market considerations, no event occurred to trigger a review of goodwill in management’s determination and thus, no impairment loss has occurred during the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  There can be no assurance, however, that market conditions will not change or demand for the Company’s products will continue, which could result in an impairment of goodwill in the future.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company reviews the recoverability of its other long-lived assets, such as property and equipment and definite lived intangible assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate the carrying value of the asset or asset group may not be recoverable.  The assessment for possible impairment is based on the Company’s ability to recover the carrying value of the asset or asset group from the expected future pre-tax cash flows, undiscounted and without interest charges, from the related operations.

If the aggregate of the net cash flows is less than the carrying value of such assets, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between estimated fair value and carrying value. The determination and measurement of impairment of long-lived assets requires management to estimate future cash flows and the fair value of long-lived assets.

Management determined that there were no impairment charges to be recognized during the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  There can be no assurance, however, that market conditions will not change or demand for the Company’s products will continue, which could result in an impairment of long-lived assets in the future.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 605.  Accordingly, revenue from the sale of products is recognized when there is evidence of an arrangement, the selling price is fixed or determinable, title and risk of loss has transferred to the customer, any installation or service obligations have been satisfied, and collection is reasonably assured. Net revenue includes deductions for customer discounts and actual and estimated returns. All amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as net sales.

Customer agreements include one vendor managed inventory program.  Pursuant to Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 13.A.3.a, the Company recognizes revenue under this arrangement when (i) risks of ownership have passed to the customer; (ii) the customer's  commitment to purchase the goods is fixed; (iii) there is a fixed schedule for delivery of the goods that is reasonable and consistent with the customer's  business purpose; (iv) the Company does not have any specific performance obligations such that the earning process is not complete; (v) the ordered goods been segregated from the Company's inventory and are not subject to being used to fill other orders; and (vi) the product is complete and ready for shipment.  Also, such arrangement must be requested by the customer and the customer has explained a substantial business purpose for the arrangement.  Management also considers whether the customer's custodial risks are insured and whether modifications to the Company's normal billing and credit terms were required.

The Company recorded revenue from product sales that are held in vendor managed inventory under these agreements of $1,923,450 and $2,947,961, for the three month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $2,913,851 and $4,846,471 for the six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, $1,483,673 and $996,588, respectively, of products sold through those dates were held by the Company in the vendor management program.

Warranty Reserve

The Company offers product warranties that generally extend for one year from the date of sale. Such warranties require the Company to repair or replace defective product returned to the Company during the warranty period at no cost to the customer. The Company records an estimate for warranty‑related costs at the time of sale based on its historical and estimated future product return rates and expected repair or replacement costs (Note 6).  

While such costs have historically been within management’s expectations and the provisions established, unexpected changes in failure rates could have a material adverse impact on the Company, requiring additional warranty reserves and could adversely affect the Company’s gross profit and gross margins.

Shipping and Handling Costs

The Company's shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold for all periods presented.

Foreign Currency

OSS GmbH operates as an extension of OSS’s domestic operations.  The functional currency of OSS GmbH is the Euro. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are remeasured to the functional currency at the average exchange rate in effect during the period.  At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for employee and director share-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation”.  Under ASC 718, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant).

All transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments to non-employees are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable.  The measurement date used to determine the estimated fair value of the equity instrument issued is the earlier of the date on which the third-party performance is complete or the date on which it is probable that performance will occur.

Employee and director stock-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the value of the portion of stock-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest during the period.  Given that stock-based compensation expense recognized in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, it has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. The Company’s estimated average forfeiture rates are based on historical forfeiture experience and estimated future forfeitures.


Compensation cost for stock awards, which include restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service period. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date less the present value of expected dividends not received during the vesting period.

The estimated fair value of common stock option awards is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires subjective assumptions regarding future stock price volatility and expected time to exercise, along with assumptions about the risk-free interest rate and expected dividends, all of which affect the estimated fair values of the Company’s common stock option awards.  Given a lack of historical stock option exercises, the expected term of options granted is calculated as the average of the weighted vesting period and the contractual expiration date of the option.  

This calculation is based on a method permitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission in instances where the vesting and exercise terms of options granted meet certain conditions and where limited historical exercise data is available.  The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the common stock of comparable public companies that operate in similar industries as the Company.

The risk-free rate selected to value any particular grant is based on the U.S. Treasury rate that corresponds to the expected term of the grant effective as of the date of the grant. The expected dividend assumption is based on the Company’s history and management’s expectation regarding dividend payouts. Compensation expense for common stock option awards with graded vesting schedules is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the last separately vesting portion of the award, provided that the accumulated cost recognized as of any date at least equals the value of the vested portion of the award.

If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying vested or unvested stock-based awards, the Company may be required to accelerate, increase or cancel any remaining unearned stock-based compensation expense, or record additional expense for vested stock-based awards. Future stock-based compensation expense and unearned stock- based compensation may increase to the extent that the Company grants additional common stock options or other stock-based awards.


Debt Discounts

Debt discounts, which originated from the relative fair value of the warrants issued in connection with note payable and related-party notes payable during 2016 and 2015 (Note 7), are recorded against note payable and related-party notes payable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Amortization of the debt discounts are calculated using the straight-line method over the term of the notes which approximates the effective interest method and are recorded in interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. All notes with warrants were retired in February 2018, and the remaining debt discount balance of $24,830 was recognized as interest expense in February 2018.  

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in marketing and selling expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.  Advertising costs for the three month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 were $26,754 and $37,212, respectively, and $44,380 and $69,300 for the six month periods ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenditures are expensed in the period incurred.  Research and development expenses primarily consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation, as well as consulting expenses and allocated facilities and other overhead costs. Research and development activities include the development of new technologies, features and functionality in support of the Company’s products and customer needs.

Income Taxes

The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the consolidated financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.

Under ASC Topic 740, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority.  An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained.  Additionally, ASC Topic 740 provides requirements for derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.  The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.  

The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, California and Germany and has open tax statutes for federal taxes for the years ended December 31, 2014 through 2016.  For California, the open tax statutes are for years December 31, 2013 through 2016 and for Germany the open years include December 31, 2015 and 2016.

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”).  The Tax Act reduces the corporate tax rate to 21%, effective January 1, 2018.  Consequently, the Company has recorded a decrease related to deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as of December 31, 2017.   Except for this adjustment, the Company does not foresee material changes to its gross liability of uncertain tax positions within the next twelve months.

Interest Expense

Interest expense consists primarily of interest associated with the Company’s issued debt including the amortization of debt discounts.  The Company recognizes the amortization of debt discounts and the amortization of interest costs using a straight-line method which approximates the effective interest method.

Net Income (Loss) Per Share

Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted-average shares and dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Dilutive potential shares consist of dilutive shares issuable and the exercise or vesting of outstanding stock options and warrants, respectively, computed using the treasury stock method. During a period where a net loss is incurred, dilutive potential shares are excluded from the computation of dilutive net loss per share, as inclusion is anti-dilutive.  

On February 1, 2018, in connection with the Company’s initial public offering, the Company’s outstanding Series A, Series B, and Series C, Preferred Stock was automatically converted to common stock, par value $0.0001.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in FASB Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. ASU 2014-09 implements a five-step process for customer contract revenue recognition that focuses on transfer of control, as opposed to transfer of risk and rewards. The amendment also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows from contracts with customers. Other major provisions include the capitalization and amortization of certain contract costs, ensuring the time value of money is considered in the transaction price, and allowing estimates of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. Entities can transition to the standard either retrospectively or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption.  On July 9, 2015, the FASB approved amendments deferring the effective date of the standard by one year. The new standard will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019.  The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is currently assessing the impact the adoption of ASU 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”).  Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term.  ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years.  Early application is permitted.  Lessees must apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements.  The modified retrospective approach would not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented.  Lessees may not apply a full retrospective transition approach.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”), which is intended to reduce the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted, provided that all of the amendments are adopted in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-15 on its consolidated financial statements.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The amendments in this update clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 will be effective for the Company for the year ending December 31, 2019 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted for transactions that have not been reported in financial statements that have been issued or made available for issuance. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). ASU 2017-04 simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment testing. An entity will no longer determine goodwill impairment by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all of its assets and liabilities as if that reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Instead, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary.  ASU 2017-04 will be effective for the Company for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company expects the adoption of this guidance will not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting (“ASU 2017-09”), which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in ASC Topic 718. Under the new guidance, modification accounting is required only if the fair value, the vesting conditions, or the classification of the award (as equity or liability) changes as a result of the change in terms or conditions. ASU 2017-09 will be effective for the Company for the year ending December 31, 2019 and interim reporting periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted. The Company expects the adoption of this guidance will not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Recently implemented accounting pronouncements


In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330) ("ASU 2015-11"). The amendments in ASU 2015-11 require that an entity measure inventory within the scope of the standard at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transaction. The amendments in this update more closely align the measurement of inventory in U.S. GAAP with the measurement of inventory in International Financial Reporting Standards. ASU 2015-11 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017.  The Company adopted ASU No. 2015-11 in the first quarter of 2018, without a material impact to its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.


In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2016-09”), which simplified certain aspects of the accounting for stock-based payment transactions, including income taxes, classification of awards and classification in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-09 in the first quarter of 2018, with no impact to its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.