UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _________ to _______

Commission File Number 001-38371

 

One Stop Systems, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

33-0885351

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

2235 Enterprise Street #110

Escondido, California 92029

(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)

(760) 745-9883

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

OSS

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $22,794,553, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market of $1.97 per share.  

As of March 15, 2021, the registrant had 18,409,318 shares of common stock (par value $0.0001) outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:  None

 

 

 

 

 


One Stop Systems, Inc.

FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020

Table of Contents

 

`

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

22

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

37

Item 2.

Properties

37

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

37

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

37

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

38

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

38

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

39

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

55

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

55

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

55

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

55

Item 9B.

Other Information

56

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

57

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

62

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

72

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

74

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

75

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

77

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

77

 

2


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report, including statements regarding our future operating results, financial position and cash flows, our business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. This Annual Report also contains estimates and other statistical data made by independent parties and by us relating to market size and growth and other data about our industry. This data involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the markets in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions.  The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, operating results, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

One Stop Systems, the One Stop Systems logo, and other trademarks or service marks of One Stop Systems appearing in this Annual Report are the property of One Stop Systems, Inc. This Annual Report also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this Annual Report appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).  You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E. Washington D.C. 20549, U.S.A.  Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC0330 for further information on the public reference room.  Our SEC filings are also available to the public from the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

On our internet website, http://www.onestopsystems.com, we post the following recent filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC: our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  The information in or accessible through the SEC and our website are not incorporated into, and are not considered part of, this filing. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

 

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PART I

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

 

Overview

 

One Stop Systems (OSS) designs, manufactures, and markets specialized high-performance computing modules and systems targeting edge deployments.  These specialized computers and storage products incorporate state-of-the art components and allow our customers to offer high-end computing capabilities (often embbed within their equipment) to their target markets. Edge computing is when data is processed/analyzed on devices, that is, at the edge of the network, rather than in the cloud itself.  Factors such as increase in load on the cloud infrastructure globally and rises in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, are the major factors driving the growth of the edge computing market.  Our customer applications often require connection to a wide array of data sources and sensors, ultra-fast processing power and the ability to quickly access and store large and ever-growing data sets at their location not in the cloud. This equipment requires datacenter class performance optimized for deployment at the edge in challenging environments.  Unlike the controlled air-conditioned data center, many of these edge applications have unique requirements including special and compact form factors ruggedized for harsh conditions.  We are uniquely positioned as a specialized provider for the high-end of this marketplace providing custom servers, data acquisition platforms, compute accelerators, solid-state storage arrays, system IO expansion systems as well as edge optimized industrial and panel PCs, tablets and handheld compute devices. We deliver this high-end technology to our customers through the sale of equipment and embedded software.

 

The worldwide high-performance computing (HPC) market is expected to grow from $39 billion in 2019 to $50 billion by 2023, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7% while the overall edge computing market is forecasted to grow to $28.8 billion by 2025 with a compound annual growth rate of over 50% (Grandview research, “Edge Computing Market Size,” June 2019). We are establishing a leading position as a provider of specialized servers, compute accelerators and flash storage arrays to the high-end of this growing marketplace targeting edge deployments.  OSS estimates the high-performance specialized segment at the intersection of HPC and the edge computing market will be greater than $2 billion in 2023.  It is OSS’ objective to be the leading vendor and technology innovator in this targeted market segment.

 

Through our AI on the Fly ® initiative, we are delivering innovative specialized high-performance edge computing building blocks and platforms used by our customers to develop products for scientists, engineers, creators and other professionals.  These mission critical applications capture and store data and quickly, securely, and cost effectively transform it into actionable intelligence at the edge.

 

High-performance computing applications are moving beyond the traditional academic and scientific realms to broad application across the spectrum of vertical markets. These applications include computationally intense areas like artificial intelligence (AI), deep learning, media and entertainment, test and measurement, medical imaging, genomics, cyber security, automotive, aerospace and defense. We are well positioned to leverage these market trends and capitalize on our unique core competencies in high-speed system design, switch fabrics, and edge system optimization. We have a proven track record of delivering first-to-market advanced technologies and have continued to do so with next generation PCI Express (PCIe) based input/output expansion systems, compute acceleration systems and high-performance flash array storage systems. PCIe offers the highest performance and lowest latency which is critical for our target applications.  Edge optimizations include rugged chassis design with light-weight removable high-capacity canisters. These products fit solidly into the emerging markets for specialized high-performance computing at the edge.

 

The more data input, GPU compute acceleration and flash-based storage resources available to a server, the faster it can acquire, process, store, and retrieve data. In cases where the amount of these resources does not fit within the constraints of a conventional server, PCIe is used to disaggregate the resources into a multi-chassis solution. We have built leading edge expertise in PCIe expansion technology and leverage it to design and build systems that offer a high quantity and density of GPU compute acceleration, flash storage and data I/O interfaces.

 

A key element of our product strategy is technological leadership. We believe a first-to-market strategy is key to our ability to continue to win significant OEM opportunities. As a result, we continue to develop new state-of-the-art products providing first-to-market next-generation PCIe based building blocks and systems. Our ability to drive the leading edge of technology is enabled by our strong relationships with strategic component manufactures, including NVIDIA (for GPUs), Western Digital and Micron (for flash memory); Broadcom (for PCIe switch components), Mellanox (for networking) and Intel, AMD and Marvel (for CPUs). In many of these cases, OSS has access to product roadmaps and other technical information relating to future technology. Access to this information allows us to begin our design process well before the

4


future components we are designing for even exist. This accelerates our time-to-market and allows us to produce and release state-of-the-art designs well ahead of our competitors.

 

OSS sells its products worldwide to industry leading customers.  We service over 1,800 customers per year worldwide, with major repeat customers including disguise, National Instruments, Raytheon, Thales, and Alcon. We anticipate continued market growth in our target markets and sustaining the ability to increase market share through our leading technology, engineering expertise, supply chain management and go-to-market innovation.

 

We were originally organized as One Stop Systems, LLC, a California limited liability company in 1998 before converting into One Stop Systems, Inc., a California corporation in 1999. On July 6, 2016, we entered into a Merger Agreement and Plan of Reorganization with Mission Technology Group, Inc. (“Magma”) whereby Magma merged with and into OSS with OSS continuing as the surviving corporation. We reincorporated as a Delaware corporation on December 14, 2017 and began trading as a public company on the Nasdaq Capital Markets on February 1, 2018. On August 31, 2018, we acquired Concept Development Inc., a provider of specialty in-flight entertainment, networking and other aerospace technology located in Irvine, California.  On October 31, 2018, we acquired Bressner Technology GmbH located near Munich, Germany.  Bressner is a valued-added reseller of high technology hardware which expanded the company’s high-performance computing product lines to include industrial and panel PCs, tablets and handheld compute devices while also opening up new markets in Europe.  Our principal executive offices are located at 2235 Enterprise Street, Suite 110, Escondido, California 92029 and our telephone number is (760) 745-9883. Our website address is www.onestopsystems.com. Information contained in, or accessible through, our website is for reference purposes only.

 

Industry Background and Market Opportunity

 

High performance computing refers to computing solutions capable of ingesting and processing large amounts of data, and storing and retrieving that data at speeds 10-100 times faster than a typical corporate computer. Increasingly, commercial companies, financial entities, governmental agencies, including the Department of Defense, and academic institutions are turning to high-performance computing solutions to analyze vast amounts of data to obtain meaningful and actionable insights. Three technologies are fundamental: GPU compute accelerators, flash memory based storage, and high speed data acquisition I/O.  These technologies enable systems to ingest, process and store data at significantly higher rates than traditional systems. By harnessing large quantities of these components, companies can receive necessary data analyses much more quickly, turning raw data to actionable intelligence. Industry experts typically divide the high-performance computing market into the following categories:

 

Servers – This market represents all high-end servers, which is composed of supercomputers, divisional servers, departmental servers, and workgroup servers.

 

Storage – This includes both traditional hard disc drive and flash-based storage devices.

 

Middleware – A broad category of software encompassing programming environments, schedulers, and other tools outside the operating system.

 

Applications – Specific software applications for high performance computing.

 

Services – All services associated with high performance computing.

 

Intersect360 Research categorizes and projects sales in the total high-performance computing market, as follows:

 

High Performance Computing Market by Product Category — Total Market Forecast by Economic Sectors ($B)

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

CAGR

 

Servers

 

$

16.2

 

 

$

17.2

 

 

$

18.2

 

 

5.73

%

Storage

 

 

7.0

 

 

 

7.2

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

8.87

%

Services

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

3.4

 

 

 

3.4

 

 

4.26

%

Software

 

 

10.0

 

 

 

10.4

 

 

 

10.6

 

 

4.09

%

Networks

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

3.6

 

 

 

3.8

 

 

5.90

%

Cloud

 

 

1.8

 

 

 

2.6

 

 

 

3.2

 

 

21.14

%

Other

 

 

3.2

 

 

 

2.8

 

 

 

3.0

 

 

2.33

%

Total

 

$

44.2

 

 

$

47.2

 

 

$

50.2

 

 

6.29

%

5


Source:

Intersect360 Research, High Performance Computing (HPC) Revenue: Worldwide Market and Forecast Series, June 7, 2019.

 

The markets for these products are large and growing. The industry sectors that are currently or anticipated to require high-performance computing systems include:

 

 

Artificial Intelligence

 

Computer Aided Engineering

 

Test and Measurement

 

Media and Entertainment

 

Economics/Financial

 

Environmental Data Acquisition

 

Geosciences

 

Mechanical Design

 

Defense – Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

 

Government Laboratories

 

Medical Imaging

 

Aerospace

 

Automotive

 

These industry sectors expect to deploy increasingly faster computing systems to meet industry and competitive goals. GPU computer acceleration, high-performance flash storage and data acquisition are key subsets of the high-performance computing market.

 

GPU Compute Acceleration

 

The capabilities and speed of GPU accelerated computers are driving significant advances in AI and machine learning. Massive amounts of data are being collected, stored and analyzed by today’s sophisticated algorithms.   AI and machine learning are poised to transform worldwide business, as advances in computing speed and storage come together to enable businesses to solve complex problems. OSS is enabling the move of this AI capability from centralized datacenters to deployments closer to the data sources at the edge.

 

High Density Solid-State Storage

 

The market for flash memory based on solid-state storage systems is large and growing. According to a study by Markets and Markets, the all-flash storage server market is growing at 25% per year, and is expected to reach $18 billion by 2023. The proliferation of larger and larger data sets used in HPC and AI are feeding the need for higher capacity and higher performance storage devices.

 

Traditionally, companies have used hard disk drives for their primary storage.  Hard drive-based systems are being replaced by flash memory based systems which offer higher capacity, performance, reliability and ruggedness.  Flash-based storage systems also consume significantly less power.

 

Flash-based storage systems are especially useful for high performance computing applications, which deal with large amounts of data and the need for complex calculations to be completed in real time. In these applications, speed and efficiency are paramount. Military systems, for example, collect vast amounts of data using sensor systems, cameras, radar systems, and a myriad of other real-world inputs. This data needs to be collected, stored, analyzed and acted upon in a real-time environment.

 

High Speed Data Acquisition

 

At the front end of these systems is high speed data acquisition technology. Depending on the application, the data can be generated from a wide array of sensors. In the case of autonomous vehicles, data is generated through arrays of video, LIDAR and radar sensors. In battlefield applications cameras, radar, sonar, FLIR (infrared), and RF sensors are deployed. Medical applications use MRI or CT sensors. In security applications, networks of security cameras produce high volumes of video data. Industrial automation includes telemetry data from Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and video feeds at a wide spectrum of frame rates.

6


Although data rates vary for all of these applications based on the sensors or array of sensors deployed, the fundamental requirements for the ingest subsystem is that it supports high speed data rates, does not allow loss of data, and does not impose flow control on the sensor data stream. For many AI on the Fly applications, local data rates can be extremely high, requiring specialized PCIe data capture hardware. As part of the capture process, the data is often processed in real time to be formatted in a useable form prior to movement to the storage devices. Capture hardware can be in the form of PCIe FPGAs, video capture, frame grabbers, or smart NICs performing a range of functions including tagging, encoding, sorting, and analog to digital conversion, filtering, time stamping, and channel synchronization. 

 

Key Components of Our Business

 

Product Development

 

Our systems are built using the latest GPU and flash storage technologies and draw upon years of expertise in designing and manufacturing semi-custom systems for OEMs. We have a history of being first-to-market with many solutions for emerging technologies. When PCIe was introduced in 2005, we were the first company to produce PCIe over cable adapters allowing system-to-system communication at same speed as internal I/O expansion. Similarly, in 2018, we introduced the first PCIe Gen 4.0 cable adapters, and in 2019, introduced the first PCIe Gen 4.0 system building blocks and platforms. PCIe Gen 4.0’s ultra-high performance 16.0 GT/s (giga-transfers/second) and signal integrity challenges limits the number of players in this market and creates barriers of entry.  Today, we are one of the largest providers of PCIe adapters and expansion components used worldwide.

 

When GPU technology and solid-state flash were first introduced, we began designing systems that maximized the effectiveness of these technologies. We now produce compute systems with large numbers of GPUs and flash memory communicating over PCIe to allow faster processing and data storage and retrieval. The more GPUs and flash devices available to a server, the faster that system can process and store data.

 

We use leading edge, state-of-the art components from major technology providers to design purpose-built systems that solve customer problems in an efficient, cost-effective manner. We apply the component technology provided by Intel, NVIDIA, Western Digital, Broadcom and others to deliver customer driven designs to provide true value to our customers.

 

Worldwide Sales

 

We provide our products on a worldwide basis and are supported through a network of reseller and distribution partners. Sales in North America and Europe are predominately driven by our direct sales force, whereas Asian sales are driven through distributors.

 

In October 2018, OSS GmbH acquired 100% of the outstanding stock of Bressner Technology GmbH, (Bressner) located in Gröbenzell, Germany.  This acquisition provides a base for European operations for sales, marketing, engineering, manufacturing and support capabilities.

 

Recent Business Initiatives

 

In April 2019, certain members of the Company’s Board of Directors executed definitive agreements to commit funds of up to $4,000,000 as a credit facility. The Company initially borrowed $1,150,000 from members of the Board of Directors, and $350,000 from other shareholders for a two-year period at an interest rate of 9.5% which requires the Company to make monthly principal and interest payments of $69,000 per month. In connection with these loans, the Company issued the note holders warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock equal to 10% of the original principal at a price per share equal to $2.15 per share.  Accordingly, the Company issued to the note holders warrants to purchase 69,766 share of the Company’s common stock.  The relative fair value of the warrants issued was $60,158.

 

In May 2019, the Company filed a Form S-3 prospectus with the Securities and Exchange Commission which became effective on June 19, 2019, and allows the Company to offer up to $100,000,000 aggregate dollar amount of shares of its common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase its common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase its common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and\or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one of more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that the Company will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.

 

7


In July 2019, the Company sold 1,554,832 shares of common stock for total gross proceeds of $2,700,714, which resulted in net proceeds to the Company of $2,488,148.

 

Coronavirus, COVID-19, continues to impact worldwide economic activity since it first surfaced around December 2019.  A public health pandemic, including COVID-19, poses the risk that we or our employees, contractors, customers, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities.

 

On February 15, 2020, Steve Cooper was terminated as President and CEO of the Company, and was replaced by David Raun, who is now the current President and CEO of the Company.

 

On April 7, 2020, the Company implemented a cost reduction plan which included the termination of certain employees and elimination of certain costs.  Savings from this effort are estimated to be approximately $2.5 million on an annual basis.  

 

On April 24, 2020, the Company completed a $6.0 million debt financing on a non-interest bearing convertible note with a 10% original issue discount.  The first tranche of $3.0 million was received on April 27, 2020, with an additional $3.0 million available seven months from the date of closing at the option of the Company conditioned upon meeting certain requirements which have been satisfied.  The note is repayable in twenty-two installments beginning three months after closing in cash or shares of the Company’s common stock. 

 

On March 1, 2021, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with an accredited investor, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell, in a registered direct offering, 1,497,006 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, to the purchaser at an offering price of $6.68 per share. The registered offering was conducted pursuant to the Company’s effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-231513), which was initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 15, 2019, and was declared effective on June 19, 2019. The Company filed the final prospectus supplement for the registered offering on March 3, 2021. In connection with the Securities Purchase Agreement, the Company also entered into a Placement Agency Agreement, pursuant to which A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners agreed to serve as lead placement agent for the registered offering and The Benchmark Company, LLC agreed to serve as co-placement agent for such offering. As compensation for their services, the Company paid to the placement agents a fee equal to 7% of the gross proceeds received by the Company as a result of the registered offering, and reimbursed the placement agents for certain expenses incurred in connection with such offering. The Company estimates that the net proceeds from the registered offering will be approximately $9.25 million after deducting certain fees due to the placement agents’ and the Company’s estimated transaction expenses. The net proceeds received by the Company will be used for general corporate and working capital purposes.

 

What Sets OSS Apart

 

Several factors differentiate OSS from other suppliers of high-performance computing solutions:

 

 

Our expertise in PCIe expansion and building custom systems allows us to design reliable systems using this challenging high-performance technology with a greater quantity of GPUs and flash storage devices than other suppliers.

 

We design systems that both attach to existing servers through high-performance PCIe over cable leveraging our customer’s existing network as well as all-in-one systems with the server, GPU computing, and flash storage devices all included in a single package.

 

We design the software required to operate high-capacity, low-latency storage systems used by defense systems and commercial applications.

 

We ruggedize and harden systems to operate within mobile or harsh environments, including full mil-spec systems.

 

Our business model consists of developing specialized computing solutions that our customers utilize as a key component of the equipment that they sell to end users.  Our niche is to provide reliable purpose-built platforms with the latest high-performance computing technology focused on challenging edge deployments.

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Business Strategy

 

We have traditionally followed a strategy of being first-to-market in leading edge technologies by designing and developing products that are delivered before our competitors. This market leadership strategy is accomplished through what we term a “Catch the Wave” approach to the market. We currently have products spanning the spectrum of high-performance computing including servers, flash storage, GPU acceleration, networking and PCIe data acquisition I/O expansion. Within these product areas the OSS “Catch the Wave” approach implies that we:

 

 

anticipate trends in these markets;

 

continuously deploy resources in engineering and sales to bring innovative products to market before our competitors;

 

work closely and leverage strategic vendor relationships to get early access to future products and technologies;

 

seek to procure early design wins; and

 

continually monitor the market for next generation technologies for which a new “Wave” may be forming.

 

Earnings Growth Strategy

 

OSS intends to continue its growth with a focus on growing earnings.  The earnings growth will be accomplished by:

 

Revenue growth driven by existing OEM and new design wins:

 

Participate in high-growth unique market segments

 

Demonstrate technology leadership in specific verticals

 

Target OEMs needing specialized solutions

 

Focus on repeat business

 

Maintain highly-skilled direct sales force

 

Expand worldwide sales and marketing

Higher Margins:

 

OSS-designed technical content

 

Increased proprietary content, software and “stickiness”

 

Focus on highest return programs/markets

 

Maximizing military and other high value applications

 

Leverage economies of scale

 

Lower material costs

 

Increased operational efficiencies through automation, discipline and process improvements

Manage Expenses:

 

Reduced spending and higher efficiency per employee

 

Utilize technology to increase efficiency

 

Leverage efficiencies of scale

 

Manage portfolio of products and business units, consolidate where efficient

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Our Opportunity

 

The worldwide high-performance computing market is expected to grow from $39 billion in 2019 to $50 billion by 2023. (Grandview research, “Edge Computing Market Size” June 2019) Within this market, OSS is positioned in the highest performance and fastest growing portions of the specialized edge computing market including the customer server, GPU accelerators, storage (flash arrays) and PCIe data acquisition and expansion sectors.

 

Custom Built Servers

 

Within the server sector, OSS has secured a niche position of building purpose-built specialty servers, which the major server suppliers choose not to supply as they require custom tuning and special features that major OEMs cannot easily provide. Such flexibility is difficult to maintain for major suppliers because their systems are not designed to reflect specific customer specifications. OSS on the other hand has continued to find efficient ways to service this market.  For example, OSS designs and builds a custom server with custom connectors and 16 high-definition video media outputs that are used in the entertainment industry to provide multimedia at live performances.

 

GPU Compute Accelerators

 

GPU computing uses hardware components that are optimized to perform mathematical calculations in a rapid fashion. NVIDIA is the market leader in the design and manufacturing of these components.  OSS works closely with NVIDIA to design and build systems which use multiple GPUs to accelerate applications.

 

Markets and applications such as artificial intelligence, image rendering and processing, autonomous vehicles, deep learning, molecular modeling, genomics, advanced visualization, machine learning, and image processing, all benefit from the ability to use GPUs to accelerate the application. OSS builds specialized compute accelerators, using the latest GPU technology, to attach to traditional servers used in these emerging growth markets. We estimate these markets to be very large and growing.  Because our strategy has been to be first-to-market with the fastest and densest compute accelerator appliances, we anticipate our addressable market to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars.

 

We also have a strong position in the government market which, according to Intersect360, constitutes 25% of the market resulting in projected revenue of $13 billion by 2023. OSS products can form a basis for companies who wish to participate in the hyper-scale market, which includes deep learning and AI. This is a major technology trend that OSS is addressing. Intersect360 estimates the deep learning market was worth more than $8 billion in 2018 with projections to grow to over $28 billion by 2023, according to Kenneth Research dated August 2019.

 

All Flash Arrays

 

We build standard and custom flash storage arrays to customer specifications utilizing our unique know-how in PCIe device fan-out, packaging, cooling, and PCIe-over-cable. We deliver dense, high-performance systems that provide customers with high value and utility in the most demanding, data-intensive operations.

 

Through a strategic agreement with Western Digital, we acquired the software engineering team several years back and the appropriate source code license for the Ion flash array software.  This provides OSS flash arrays with a high level of differentiation relating to storage management, latency and throughput. We provide standard flash array products and have the in-house hardware and software expertise to provide customized systems for demanding applications that are not suitable for standard offerings.

 

For example, we provide products to a large military contractor for integration into military aircraft that required us to design and manufacture a highly ruggedized mil-spec flash array. The resulting product provides high data density with low weight and a high degree of portability and security for the data. We believe our experience and capability in high speed, low-latency, digital signaling via PCIe gives us an edge in providing these custom designs to OEMs, military programs and other special purpose applications.

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The overall market for flash arrays is growing rapidly. According to Markets and Markets All-Flash Array Market – Global Forecast to 2023 published in February 2019, the flash storage market totaled $6 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow to reach $18 billion by 2023. According to Intersect360 about 80% of the total sales in 2018 were attributed to traditional large OEMs, like Dell EMC, NetApp, HPE, Hitachi, Lenovo, DDN and IBM. The remaining 20% is addressed by many smaller flash storage providers, including OSS. We believe that because our products are positively differentiated by speed, density, and management features for challenging edge applications, our offerings compete favorably in this market and provide a substantial growth opportunity.

 

Since we develop custom flash storage arrays, we work closely with both OEMs and end users to insure they receive the product they want in the specific configuration, size and weight required for their application. We believe this gives OSS an advantageous position in a market that is growing rapidly and allows us to favorably compete in the market.

PCIe Data Acquisition Expansion and Adaptors

 

PCIe is the high-speed standard for communications within a computer. This standard defines the signals and connectors (i.e. slots) that are used for computer add-in cards (such as Ethernet or graphics). Traditionally, communication between computers in the network is done via Ethernet.  Although Ethernet is great for large networks, this introduces delays and latency challenges.  To keep performance at the highest level, PCIe signaling can also be routed over a cable, allowing expansion input/output slots to be physically located in a separate chassis. This provides for the high performance and low latency which are essential in this market.

 

Being able to separate the server from the I/O expansion, using PCIe over a cable, facilitates disaggregation of server functionality. That is, with PCIe, server I/O functions no longer need to be contained in the physical server chassis, but can instead be separated into a separate chassis and continue to operate at full speed. This offers many advantages over higher latency and power consuming traditional networking communications like Ethernet.  From a practical perspective, servers can be connected directly to larger storage arrays or other peripheral devices, with the resulting group of chassis operating as if they were all in the same physical chassis.

 

We began developing our first PCIe-over-cable adaptor in 2006, and were one of the early providers of PCIe adaptors. We recognized this as prime opportunity to utilize our core strengths, such as:

 

 

High-speed board design and layout

 

Signal integrity masters

 

Hardware tuning to improve signal integrity

 

Design optimization for low cost

 

Rapid design capability

 

Manufacturing and supply chain management

 

This technology has now become a standard within the computer industry, and OSS customers have used our adaptors to connect their custom input/output chassis and achieve performance equivalence as if the input/output was integrated into the server box. This gives designers and integrators a degree of flexibility and utility in architecting computer systems that is unprecedented. For example, one of our customers has utilized PCIe-over-cable to connect its high-performance video editing systems to a host computer, providing a system that is optimized for an application using standard servers. We have expanded our PCIe adaptor market in breadth and depth, including making adaptors for many OEM customers. To date, we have shipped more than 100,000 PCIe adaptor cards to customers globally.

 

With our expertise developed in designing adaptor cards, the logical extension of our capability led us to develop a method for expanding the PCIe bus into an external chassis containing one or many expansion slots. This allowed a customer to install multiple standard PCIe boards into a chassis and expand their system without having to add additional servers. A user could now connect a multiplicity of PCIe devices to a single server, and achieve performance throughput and low latency that was not possible prior to the introduction of PCIe.

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We have been a leader in PCIe expansion backplanes and chassis through generations 1, 2, 3, and 4. As PCIe evolves through generations 5 and 6, we are uniquely positioned to continue our leadership role in this market. We have introduced a full line of PCIe Gen 4.0 products and will once again take a leadership role with PCIe Gen 5.0 when the specification is complete which is anticipated in 2021. We currently offer what we believe to be the largest PCIe expansion product line breadth, with chassis and backplanes that offer expansion from one to 64 slots. Due to its greater data throughput and flexibility of design, we believe this is a growing market, and we intend to maintain our leadership role.

 

Our Technology

 

We design and manufacture high performance computing systems for use on the edge that increase compute performance while reducing cost and impact to the infrastructure. Our high-density compute accelerators connect directly to a server’s PCIe bus, delivering substantial compute performance. Our flash storage arrays support hundreds of terabytes of high-speed storage that can also be accessed by multiple servers.

 

Technology Drivers for OSS High-Performance Computing Business

 

OSS has developed expertise and core competencies in the three fundamental technology drivers of today’s high-performance edge computing market. Namely, high-speed serial interconnect technology, compute acceleration utilizing GPUs, and low latency flash storage. In combination, these technologies are changing the economics of computing, bringing high-performance computing within the grasp of a wide range of new industries and commercial applications on the edge. Simultaneously the emergence of massive data being generated in each of these industries is pushing the requirement for state-of-the-art technology. OSS is enabling this technology to be deployed at the edge by merging these fundamental technologies with our expertise in providing the system level customization for meeting requirements for ruggedization and SWAP constraints (space, weight and power).

 

The opportunity is not only to provide competitive advantage for corporations, but also address some of the most fundamental challenges in life science, energy and security. OSS is well situated to leverage these major industry forces. By exploiting its unique set of expertise in the underpinning technologies of high-performance computing, OSS will continue to deliver world leading solutions, with the opportunity to capture a growing market share of this rapidly expanding marketplace.

 

Switched Serial Interconnect

 

Switched serial interconnects are the data highways connecting many elements of today’s high-performance computing platforms. At ever increasing speeds, these pathways move data between system’s processing units, storage, networking, and peripheral elements. For high performance computing the primary processing, storage and peripheral interconnect is PCIe Gen 4.0. PCIe Gen 4.0 has an ability to run up to 16 lanes in parallel, which allows up to 64 gigabytes (full duplex) per second bandwidth between system elements.

 

Serial switches incorporated in system design allow many system elements to be connected together in a non-blocking interconnect fabric at PCIe Gen 4 speeds. This switch fabric capability allows systems to scale internally avoiding bottlenecks. The serial interconnect can be embedded directly in the computer printed circuit boards, across connectors board-to-board, or traverse across copper or optical cables for chassis-to-chassis connection. Due to the extremely high speeds, the design considerations around signal integrity are rigorous and with unforgiving tolerances. PCIe Gen 5 will begin deployment in 2021, doubling the interconnect speed once again.

 

Compute Acceleration with GPUs

 

GPUs have evolved from graphics display acceleration to becoming general-purpose processing workhorses for high-performance computing systems. Today, the majority of the fastest supercomputers in the world utilize GPUs as their primary compute engines. GPUs are ideal for high-performance computing workloads because of their ability to do massively parallel processing. While traditional CPUs today may have dozens of processing cores, GPUs have thousands of cores that are able to execute calculations simultaneously.

 

For many high-performance applications, fundamental pieces of the code can be optimized to run in parallel and therefore experience significant performance enhancements. NVIDIA, a key supplier of GPUs to the market, has done extensive benchmarking showing the ability of single GPU based machines to exceed the performance of dozens or even thousands of traditional CPU-only computers. NVIDIA has worked extensively with the software development community, and hundreds of applications have been tuned and developed to run on GPUs.

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The current NVIDIA GPU Applications catalog lists more than 400 such applications across a broad set of market spaces including:

 

 

Computational Finance

 

Climate, Weather and Ocean Modeling

 

Computational Chemistry and Biology

 

Data Science and Analytics

 

Deep Learning and Machine Learning

 

Federal Defense and Intelligence

 

Genomics

 

Manufacturing

 

Media and Entertainment

 

Medical Imaging

 

Oil and Gas

 

Safety and Security

 

While NVIDIA is focused on the deployment of their GPUs in the Data Center and for gaming, OSS is focused on taking this capability to the edge.   Many of these applications also scale performance based on the number of GPU components utilized. OSS has designed multi-GPU systems including up to 16 GPUs in a single system. Current state-of-the art GPUs provide over 7 teraflops of performance, with future products set to dramatically increase overall processing capabilities in the years to come.

 

GPUs also pose significant system design challenges due to their high-power requirements. High-end GPUs can require as much as 350 watts of power, which generates a tremendous amount of heat. Sophisticated power distribution and cooling designs are required, especially for large scale systems with multiple GPUs per chassis.

 

PCI Express Flash Storage – NVMe protocol

 

The use of flash memory technology for system storage has gained traction over the last several years, as the cost per gigabyte has continued to drop. Flash memory is now becoming the ubiquitous storage technology in high-performance systems.

 

Combined with the move away from traditional rotating hard drive technology has been the trend toward eliminating traditional storage protocols in favor of low latency flash memory protocols. Newer flash memory modules utilize a protocol known as NVMe, which connects the flash memory directly to the system’s PCIe interconnect. This direct connection allows for very high bandwidth between the storage and the other system elements and eliminates the need for protocol translation as data is moved from storage subsystems to and from the compute complex.

 

Today, flash memory modules with capacities up to 8 terabytes and PCIe Gen 4 interfaces are becoming available. OSS flash storage arrays with hundreds of terabytes of capacity are available, enabling the scaling of high-speed storage to meet the full range of high-performance edge application requirements.

 

Core Technical Capabilities

 

OSS has developed unique expertise and core competency across the fundamental technologies of today’s rapidly expanding specialized high-performance edge computing marketplace. These valuable assets are embedded in the leading-edge engineering capabilities of our engineers, the proprietary intellectual property residing in our vast library of designs, and our brand equity based on our reputation as a high-quality producer of state-of-the-art custom and standard solutions across a broad array of markets.

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High Speed System Interconnect Design

 

Our electrical engineers are experts in high-speed digital signaling design. They have continually designed at the leading edge of the state-of-the-art signaling speeds, as semiconductor technology has driven up the clock rate of digital transmission. We have consistently been among a small handful of companies able to come to market first with the latest technology. In fact, we delivered the industry’s first PCIe over cable solutions for PCIe Gen 1, Gen 2, Gen 3, and Gen 4 and are currently on track to accomplish this again in Gen 5. The expertise required includes circuit design, PCB (printed circuit board) layout and routing optimizations all with a focus on achieving the highest levels of signal integrity. In our current systems, PCIe Gen 4 signals are propagated across multiple PCBs, connectors, and copper cabling while maintaining the ability to recognize digital signal transitions at 16 billion times per second.

 

In high-performance computing systems, especially on the edge, the trajectory of ever-increasing signaling speeds is continuing.   An ever-shrinking set of companies have the capability to design robust, highly-reliable systems at speeds that can tolerate the harsh conditions on the edge. We believe our core competency in large-scale, high-speed design and layout will allow us to remain on the forefront of this growing industry.

Complex System Design

 

In addition to low-level signal integrity design expertise, we have amassed expertise and intellectual property in high-performance system architecture design. This expertise allows us to develop extremely sophisticated systems with massive scaling, while meeting customer demands for reliability, cost, and flexibility.

 

We have developed the deep knowledge for high-capacity input/output systems and operating system adjustments and configuration tuning required. Our engineers are often called upon to co-design with OEM designers to create the perfect fit solution for their customers.

 

For highly scalable systems, a deep understanding and experience with switching topologies and interconnect fabric design is required. We have worked with serial switching technology starting with the first generation of PCIe and have been an innovator in creating unique and flexible topologies to meet the specific needs of the customers. Creating custom solutions for unique customer solutions is a core competency and relies on this deep knowledge of switch capabilities and limitations.

 

For maximum system performance, design for optimizing data transfer speeds is also an important consideration. OSS has developed expertise in system design to leverage peer-to-peer data flows between GPUs and pioneering techniques for optimized data flows between flash storage and GPU compute engines. Our systems optimize switch and GPU configuration topologies to optimize GPU-to-GPU communication without requiring latency-inducing data transfer between host dual processors. Our platforms feature RDMA (remote direct memory access) across compute nodes, which support data transfer without burdening the host CPU.

 

OSS has pioneered the ability to extend the PCIe bus beyond the confines of a single enclosure, opening the possibility of flexible system expansion options. We believe we are one of the leading designers and suppliers of PCIe host bus adapters that extend PCIe signals from the host motherboard across copper or optical cables to expansion enclosures. OSS adapters provide both ends of the external cable connection. Our expertise in high-speed signal design in printed circuit boards, connectors and cables is essential to successful expansion designs. We also hold expertise in incorporating clustering and rack scale expansion into our system designs, including 100/200 gigabit Ethernet, 100/200 gigabit InfiniBand, and emerging PCIe top-of-rack switch technology.

 

Expertise in power, cooling, and mechanical design are required to address the requirements of the high-performance computing customers especially while meeting the constrained time requirements of edge deployments. We have developed leadership design capability in high-power design and distribution within large rack enclosures as well as edge optimized configurations. High-end GPUs today require 350 watts or above, and in our high-end systems, up to 16 of these can reside in a single chassis. Thousands of kilowatts of redundant power are required. Power stability and huge thermal loads are some of the critical design issues that must be addressed.

 

We have expertise in power distribution, redundant power, and complex chassis cooling design, including materials selection, airflow simulation, fan technology and cable routing. We have also developed extensive intellectual property in regulatory compliance of complex high-performance computing system design across emission, shock, vibration, thermal, humidity and other environmental requirements that are required for highly reliable and highly available solutions. OSS engineers are experts in design for regulatory testing for FCC (Federal Communications Commission), CE (European

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Conformity), UL (Underwriters Laboratories), and Mil-Spec (Military Standard) standards. Additionally, we have expertise in rapid prototyping, design for manufacturability, and design for serviceability.

 

Storage Management Software

 

Given our hardware design and integration expertise, we see the next natural step is to add a robust software capability that will allow us to offer more optimized and customized systems. Our Ion software design team provides the expertise to deliver full server and storage solutions that produce the highest performance from today’s leading-edge flash storage devices.

 

The Ion software allows flash-based modules to be put into a variety of storage and network configurations which can then be accessed by multiple servers. The Ion software can do this cost-effectively, while preserving the low latency that is vital for many business and mission-critical enterprise applications, from database and transaction processing to massive data collection programs. Ion also has a full high-availability option to ensure complete data integrity.

 

In-house mature and established foundational storage software allows OSS to add new products and capabilities to its product portfolio. Possibilities range from increasing data efficiency with snapshot, de-duplication and compression, to improving system manageability and adding NVMe over Fabrics storage scale out capabilities to our products.

 

Benefits of Technology and Core Capabilities to our Customers

 

Due to our core capabilities, we can provide our high-performance computing customers with platforms possessing high reliability and cost effectiveness. Such performance allows our customers to solve bigger problems faster, and save the cost and time of highly-paid engineers, data scientists, and other human resources. Our technology enhances innovation by allowing more ‘what-if’ analysis in a finite amount of time. Our price/performance leadership enhances our customers’ competitiveness, and lowers capital expense and total cost of ownership. We work with our OEM customers to develop custom ‘perfect fit solutions’ for their unique requirements.

 

Our Products

 

OSS has developed a complete line of products that have been customized for the benefit of our customers.

GPU Appliances – high-density, fully integrated computer clusters that are purpose-built for user applications. They provide thousands of cores and hundreds of teraflops of computing performance.

GPU Expansion – expansion units can add hundreds or thousands of computing cores with hundreds of teraflops of computing performance to virtually any OEM server.

Flash Storage and Network Appliances – networked storage appliances optimized for the environment and system software of our customers. These offer flexible and powerful turnkey, customer-driven solutions for the HPC market.

Flash Storage Arrays – arrays that provide hundreds of terabytes of storage and millions of input/output operations per second with flash memory. They are flexible, powerful, and configurable for customers in the HPC market.

Servers – OSS designs servers optimized for PCIe-over-cable expansion. Available in various turn-key and custom configurations, they provide simple, reliable and cost-effective server solutions. These servers are optimized to work seamlessly with other OSS systems and appliances.

Desktop Computing Appliances – OSS designs and builds desktop expansion appliances in many configurations that add input/output flexibility to any user’s desktop system. These appliances come pre-configured with many combinations of flash memory, GPUs, and other add-in boards.

PCIe Expansion – PCIe is the standard for high-speed connectivity from a server to a PCIe device. It provides vastly faster throughput compared to USB or Ethernet in a simple, cost-effective connection. It requires no special software, which adds no overhead to the system, and improves latency of throughput. OSS provides cables, kits, backplanes, enclosures, switches, and adaptor cards for this market.

Industrial and Panel PCs – OSS provides small form factor high-performance compute platforms customizable to meet needs in industrial applications on the edge where space constraint is a fundamental consideration.

Tablets and Handhelds – OSS provides ruggedized mobile high-performance compute devices that meet the specialized requirement for devices deployed at the edge in a diverse set of environmental conditions.  

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Customers

 

OSS serves a global clientele consisting of multinational companies, governmental agencies, and leading technology providers. Some of our key customers are set forth below, including case studies illustrating how we provide custom solutions.

Raytheon – OSS worked closely with Raytheon to build a customized flash storage array, with flash drives installed in removable canisters. Raytheon has installed these storage arrays on a current military aircraft equipped with multiple sensors, encryption devices and data recorders. These devices are fully compliant with appropriate military specifications, including shock and vibration. Each canister has the capacity to save 100 terabytes of data and weighs only 6.5 pounds, a fraction of the weight of the previous spinning hard drive design. Data is captured onto the compact OSS flash array canisters, which can be easily removed at the end of the mission for analysis. Our expertise in designing and manufacturing high-density flash arrays in the lightest, most compact package allows military aircraft to realize faster turnarounds during critical missions. These systems are being incorporated into new aircraft and retrofitted into the existing fleet.  In addition to these storage arrays, OSS has also expanded into designing and manufacturing compute platforms for Raytheon, adding AI on the fly capabilities to aircrafts.

disguise– disguise is the leading provider of hardware and software that allows their customers to produce live events, television broadcasts, theater effects, and special effects for concert tours. In addition to its live event products, disguise is becoming a leader in the virtual world by leveraging the same technology and OSS’ products to create realistic 3D backdrops in studios around the world. OSS has worked with disguise to design purpose-built, custom servers that act as video controllers for special effects at these events. These edge servers work seamlessly with disguise software applications, providing up to 16 simultaneous video outputs that supports a rich array of special effects and extended reality experiences. Events like the Super Bowl halftime show, sporting events, feature films and numerous musical concerts rely upon disguise controllers, designed and produced by OSS to deliver a lasting impression on audiences.

 

National Instruments – National Instruments is a market leader and multinational company that produces automated test equipment and virtual instrumentation software. OSS provides several PXI/PXIe/PCIe interface cards that are branded by National Instruments. OSS acts as an extension to National Instruments’ engineering group, allowing National Instruments to complete their product roadmap in a timely and cost-effective manner.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Our sales and marketing efforts are focused on promoting sales, producing expert content, and brand awareness.

 

Sales

Our sales efforts entail three main areas:

 

General Sales – OSS maintains a web site, web store and direct sales team that sell directly to end-users. This includes e-commerce sales via typical web store functionality, and direct calling of potential customers to provide unique solutions that fits their needs. The OSS direct sales team interfaces with new potential customers at live events and virtual industry tradeshows, directly interacts with potential customers, and presents solutions for their high-performance edge needs.

 

OEM Focused Sales – Our direct sales team is organized to best identify and develop the top potential commercial OEM and government program customers. These OEM and government programs form the largest and fastest growing parts of our business.

 

Our Commercial Sales Team focuses on OEM customers where we sell standard or design and build customer specified systems based on OSS technology expertise that are branded with the OEM’s name and label. These companies, many market leaders, then resell the products through their own sales channels. We actively seek this type of relationship, which is leveraged as a sales multiplier, allowing us to grow sales at a faster rate without adding as many dedicated sales resources.

 

Our Government Sales Team focuses on this large (~30%) and growing portion of the OSS business which provides systems to US Federal Department of Defense programs.  Our government sales team has the knowledge and expertise to identify major program opportunities and provide the extensive technical and business documentation to bring these programs from concept to successful completion.  The growing part of our business is a focus and provides higher contribution of profit margin.

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Channels – We have a dedicated sales resource that manages our worldwide network of resellers and distributors. We sell a large breadth of standard products through these channels, which allow us to achieve global customer touch without requiring a physical presence in all geographies. The master distributors in several countries have dedicated sales expertise to capture additional OEM business with both Fortune 500 and second tier OEM firms extending our international footprint. With the acquisition of Bressner, we have a greater direct presence in Europe which allows greater access to those markets.

 

Marketing

 

Our marketing department is responsible for defining our vision and product road map while also producing the highest return on our investments.  They primarily focus on positioning OSS as an expert and visionary in the field of high-performance computing in edge applications utilizing PCI Express. We generate expert content to support our market leading products while also building cost effective brand/product awareness in several ways. We use traditional and non-traditional marketing as well as partnerships and word of mouth to convey the uniqueness and compelling value of our products and services. The markets and applications we target include machine learning, deep learning, finance, medical equipment, in-flight entertainment, manufacturing automation, defense/government, oil and gas exploration, media and entertainment. Among the many channels utilized are:

 

 

Trade Shows – We participate in several live and virtual tradeshows and events during the year to generate new relationships and foster existing relationships with customers and partners. These engagements allow us to showcase our standard and custom product expertise to our target markets.  The target trade shows include AUSA (US Army), Sea-Air-Space (Navy/NASA), National Association of Broadcasters and IBC (media & entertainment), GPU Technology Conferences globally, DSEI (International Military), AI World and AI Summit, Supercomputing and International Supercomputing, Flash Memory Summit, Airline Passenger Expo and AIX (in-flight entertainment), Medica (medical) and Embedded World. OSS evaluates the ROI and costs of each show on an annual basis so participation may change from year to year.

 

Electronic Media – We use various forms of electronic advertising media to market both the products and capabilities of OSS.  Electronic media includes internal direct email campaigns such as monthly newsletters and various press releases for new products, technology developments, partnerships and significant application design wins. In addition, we use media companies relevant to our target markets to disseminate information about OSS to a larger set of potential customers.  The format of the electronic advertising varies but with the common focus on content advertising with a secondary focus on brand awareness. The various electronic media formats include search engine ads and keyword campaigns, digital ads, display ads, datasheet emails, e-newsletters and text ads. Our web site is very key at leveraging our leadership content, positioning and SEO capabilities. We will continue to invest on this front.

 

Social Media – We regularly use Facebook, Linked-in and Twitter to instantly alert the followers of OSS to new events, products, services, and customer stories.

 

Publications – We periodically publish white papers, customer success stories, and other demand generation technology articles in printed and electronic periodicals and newsletters that include InsideHPC, Military Embedded Systems, Storage Newsletter and HPC wire. We also carefully purchase some print ads with the highest ROI in select industry magazines for brand awareness.

 

As we grow, it is anticipated our marketing efforts will likewise continue to increase in size and diversity.

 

Competition

 

OSS’ core business is to provide specialized high-performance edge computing building blocks and platforms to OEMs who incorporate these products in their complete solutions which they sell to end users in specific vertical markets.  Due to the nature of OSS’ business there are a number of categories of potential competitors of our products.

 

Customer in-house design resources

 

Many of OSS’ target OEM customers have in-house engineering design resources which could be used as an alternative to engaging with OSS.  Examples of current OSS customers who have significant in-house resources include National Instruments, Raytheon, and Lockheed Martin. This potential competition is mitigated by the technical specialization OSS has especially in high end and large scale PCI Express switch fabrics and PCI Express over cable capabilities.  OEMs can invest their in-house resources on value-add capabilities within their specific vertical market and outsource these horizontal technology capabilities to OSS.  OSS has also developed a trusted partner relationship with many of these OEMs

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and has established a market reputation for technical expertise and a responsive and cost-effective engagement model. We win when our customers realize that together we can produce better products faster and more cost-effectively than they can themselves. This has proven to be particularly evident when customers require state-of-the-art products that are constructed of parts available commercially. This has resulted in several design wins that demonstrate our flexibility and how we can work closely with large OEM and government customers. Interestingly, it appears that when these large companies cut back on their workforce or have more limited budgets, such events may actually help our position as we may become these companies’ only option to get their desired product or service deployed within a reasonable period of time.

Major Tier 1 & 2 Mainstream Computer and Storage Vendors

 

These vendors offer mainstream high-performance computing platforms including servers and storage systems that can address some applications at the edge in OSS target markets. They do not; however, offer ‘specialized’ platforms or customization capabilities that OSS specializes in to meet unique form factor or ruggedization or scale out requirements sought by OEM customers.  For the most part these vendors focus on the large air-conditioned data centers and compete on price/volume.  OSS’ strategy is specifically designed to avoid head-to-head competition with this class of vendors.  In some scenarios OSS can provide a complementary specialized component or building block which interface to one of these vendors mainstream products. Examples of companies in this space include HP, Dell/EMC, IBM, Pure Storage, and NetApp.

 

Chip Vendors with vertical integration offerings

 

Third party competitive products include cases where the manufacturers of the underlying chip or board-level products decide to also offer system-level products. This is the case with Intel, NVIDIA, Western Digital and others. These offerings tend to be tactical, short-term products that are intended to demonstrate a new technology, rather than long-term forays into the systems business. In addition, these “technology demonstration systems” tend to be priced at high levels, making them less competitive once the newness factor wears off.

 

Specialized Horizontal HPC Vendors

 

There are a handful of fragmented competitors who offer specialized products in the same categories as OSS.  These companies are small and tend to focus in specific geographic area or with an established set of long-term customers.  They have limited bandwidth to take on many simultaneous projects and are rarely seen in direct competitive situations. Examples of companies in this space include Trenton and Cyclone.

 

Multi GPU Platform Vendors

 

A significant area of focus for OSS is in specialized multi-GPU platforms for edge applications.  Due to the tremendous interest in AI solutions using GPUs there are many vendors offering products in this space.  Similar to the mainstream computer and storage vendors mentioned above these vendors offer standard solutions without the options for specialization and customization that OSS offers. As the primary GPU vendor, NVIDIA is a safe choice as a system provider for many customers who do not need or desire a level of specialization in their products.  OSS has a strong and positive relationship with NVIDIA which includes receiving leads from them for specialized solutions not addressed by their mainstream system offering.  Other companies such as SuperMicro and Tyan who offer their own system products directly are also happy to work with OSS to resell their products when customers need a combination of standard and specialized products.  OSS offers its EOS server based on SuperMicro motherboards. Examples of companies in this space include NVIDIA, SuperMicro and Tyan.

 

Vertical HPC Vendors – Military/Aerospace

 

In certain vertical markets, there are competitors who focus primarily in that market. The military and aerospace markets are prime examples.  These vendors often provide complete solutions including both hardware and software and some specialization in terms of form factor and ruggedization.  In these markets, OSS provides unique capability in terms of scaling of PCI Express components over cable (copper and fiber) that can address unique requirements of specific military or government programs.  OSS has also established good relationships with prime contractors or agencies (Raytheon, Lockheed, Boeing, NASA, ONR, and others) which can be important influencers or decision makers on technology selection.  Competitors in this space include companies such as Mercury, Crystal, Curtiss Wright, and Systel.  In the past, we have been able to offer the latest technology normally only deployed in commercial applications well before our competitors by leveraging our “performance, without compromise” strategy.

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Vertical Vendors – M&E/Visualization

 

Another vertical market with different competitors is the media and entertainment and visualization markets.  These companies focus on understanding and tuning their hardware systems to the specific application and data types of these markets.  This focus provides those benefits in terms of brand awareness in the vertical, but often they are limited in ability to meet specialized and customized requirements of OEMs in this space.  Examples of companies in this space include Boxx, Cubix and Sonnet.

Manufacturing and Operations

 

OSS is certified under ISO 9001-2015 for “design, manufacture, and supply of industrial computers.” This means OSS has demonstrated its ability to consistently provide products that meet both customer requirements and applicable regulatory or statutory requirements. It also indicates that we have programs and processes in place to ensure a high level of customer satisfaction, as well as a continuous improvement program that ensures OSS gets better over time.

 

We utilize lean principles to drive our manufacturing and assembly process. One of the key aspects of this is our application of just-in-time principles that ensure effective ordering and utilization of inventory, and this helps optimize cash flow throughout the manufacturing cycle. Within the manufacturing process, our operations encompass three categories of “builds:”

 

 

Standard Builds – These are builds of standard products that are sold with little or no customization or non-standard features. These are products that are ready to be installed or integrated by the customer upon receipt.

 

Custom Builds – Custom builds involve a product built to a customer specification. Upon receipt, the customer has a unique product that performs all the functions and has the physical dimensions that match their specifications.

 

Engineering Project Builds – OSS supports the product development process by building models and prototypes of products. Developed by the OSS engineering group, the prototypes can be of standard or custom products.

 

OSS is dedicated to quality and customer satisfaction. Within the manufacturing operations function at OSS, our processes begin with the end goal in mind. This means we start with the customer. All our business processes begin with the idea that the customer is the essence of why we exist. Our continuous improvement efforts require us to review products, services, and processes with the idea that minor changes can lead to greater outcomes for our customers.

 

While we are cognizant of the additive nature of small improvements, we believe a disciplined approach to improvement sometime leads to extraordinary, large, and positive advances in our products and services. This is extremely important to OSS, as our goal is to bring the most advanced leading-edge technologies to our customers before our competitors can. Our operations strategy supports our overall mission of being first-to-market with customized, leading-edge products that are best-in-market in terms of speed and overall performance.

 

Although we serve the high end of the edge computing space, we are constantly looking for ways to become more efficient and drive down costs while driving up margins.

 

Research and Development

 

Our ability to compete successfully in our industry is heavily dependent upon our ability to ensure a continual and timely flow of competitive products, services, and technologies to the marketplace. We continue to develop new products and technologies and to enhance existing products in order to drive further commercialization. We may also expand the range of our product offerings and intellectual property through licensing and/or acquisition of third-party business and technology.

 

Intellectual property research and development at OSS is centered on the exploitation of key technologies as they evolve in the marketplace. Our product roadmap reflects new technologies for CPUs, GPUs, flash storage, and advanced PCIe switches. We design first-to-market, custom implementations utilizing market leading component technologies. Accordingly, our focus lies not in the capital-intensive development of silicon implementations of technologies (i.e., chips, processors, GPUs, or storage devices), but rather leverages leading-edge technologies and building first-to-market products that fully exploit those technologies for solving customer problems.

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The OSS research and development strategy can be summarized as follows: OSS drives design wins by utilizing key new technologies to develop products that are leading edge and first-to-market while solving challenging problems working closely with our customers.

 

Some examples of OSS developments:

 

GPU compute accelerators with the most GPUs per rack unit

 

Networking of GPUs

 

Broad range of solutions, due to specific customer design

 

Capability to expand existing servers from virtually any OEM

 

First-to-market products as new GPUs are introduced by NVIDIA, Intel, Western Digital and Broadcom

 

Complete customization per the needs of our OEM customers

 

Integration of multiple new technologies (servers, GPUs, flash drives, and PCIe) into optimized products for our OEM customers

 

Intellectual Property

 

The primary intellectual property value of OSS emanates from the more than 600 individual design projects we have undertaken over the decades since our founding. These designs are archived and cataloged, so we rarely begin a new design from scratch.  In general, we maintain the rights to the product to use elsewhere.

 

Over the years, our team has developed and maintained expertise in high-speed signal design and analysis, electronic and mechanical packaging, PCIe-over-cable, fiber optics transmission, high-speed/density flash arrays, and integration and deployment of GPUs in compute accelerators and servers. This extensive expertise positions us to expand and rationalize our product line to meet the growing and ever-changing HPC market.

 

Working Capital Items

 

Our inventory levels are currently adequate for our short-term needs based upon present levels of demand.  We consider the component parts of our different products to be generally available and current suppliers to be reliable and capable of satisfying anticipated needs.

 

Markets, Seasonality, and Major Customers

 

The Company’s products and services serve a global clientele consisting of multinational companies, governmental agencies, and leading technology providers. Based on recent market experience, it appears there may be some seasonality with deliveries decreasing in January and February each year, likely as a result of Asia’s holiday season and as a result of varied customer appropriation cycles; however, we believe these market factors will continue to evolve and the Company’s insight to these trends will improve with continued commercial success and time.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, 24.1% and 41.0% of our total consolidated revenues were associated primarily with two customers. A loss or decline in business with these customers could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

We typically provide our products under contract supply agreements or purchase orders. We provide our products, software, and services from our offices located in California, Utah, and Germany. 

 

Distribution, Marketing, and Strategic Relationships

 

We have developed strategic relationships with well-established companies in key areas including distribution and manufacturing. We sell our products worldwide, with a primary focus on North America, Europe and Asia markets, through our direct product sales force, and partner networks.

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Materials and Suppliers

 

Although most components essential to our business are generally available from multiple sources, we believe there are component suppliers and manufacturing vendors whose loss to us could have a material adverse effect upon our business and financial condition.

 

Historically, we have not experienced significant delays in the supply or availability of our key materials or components provided by our suppliers, nor have we experienced a significant price increase for materials or components.  We do not anticipate any such delays or significant price increases in our fiscal year 2021. 

Human Capital Resources, Employees, and Personnel

We believe that our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to continue to attract, hire, and retain qualified personnel.  To achieve this objective the Company provides competitive compensation, benefits, stock participation and a success driven work environment.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 99 employees, of which 97 are full-time and 2 are part-time employees.  Seventy-three of our employees are domestic and twenty-six are international. Our employees include highly skilled engineers, technicians, assemblers, and support staff. They are housed in multiple facilities, and are led by a management team that is supportive but expects a lot. We are proud of our low turnover of personnel where we keep the team challenged and encourage input and creative thinking by all.  The management team provides transparency to its employees through regular communication meetings designed to update employees on current metric driven results and future expectations. None of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement or represented by a labor union. We consider our relationship with our employees to be strong.

Environmental Matters

 

No significant pollution or other types of hazardous emission result from the Company’s operations and it is not anticipated that our operations will be materially affected by federal, state or local provisions concerning environmental controls.  Our costs of complying with environmental, health and safety requirements have not been material.

Furthermore, we do not believe that compliance with existing or pending climate change legislation, regulation, or international treaties or accords are reasonably likely to have a material effect in the foreseeable future on our business or markets that we serve, nor on our results of operations, capital expenditures, earnings, competitive position, financial position, or any of our operations.  However, we will continue to monitor emerging developments in this area.

Government Approval and Effect of Government Regulations

Because our core business is to provide specialized high performance edge computing building blocks and platforms to OEMs who incorporate these products in their complete solutions which they sell to end users in specific vertical markets, we do not believe that any government agency approval is required for the products and services that we provide to our customers.

However, governmental regulations, including but not limited to import and export law, customer, and trade regulations, may affect our business.  For more information, see the section titled, “Risk Factors” found on Part I, Item1A, to this Annual Report.

Company Website

 

We maintain a corporate Internet website at: http://www.onestopsystems.com

 

The contents of our website are not incorporated in or otherwise to be regarded as part of this Annual Report. We file reports with the SEC which are available on our website free of charge. These reports include annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, “Section 16” filings on Form 3, Form 4, and Form 5, and other related filings, each of which is provided on our website as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file such materials with or furnish them to the SEC. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including the Company.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, operating results, and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Navigating the demand, supply and operational challenges associated with the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic unsuccessfully may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

COVID-19 has spread worldwide, resulting in shutdowns of manufacturing and commerce. COVID-19 has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain it, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders and shutdowns. These measures have impacted, and may further impact, our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers and our partners, and those of our respective vendors and suppliers. Our critical business operations, including our headquarters, most of our finished goods inventory and many of our key suppliers, are located in regions which have been impacted by COVID-19. Our customers and suppliers worldwide have also been affected and may continue to be affected by COVID-19 related restrictions and closures.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased economic and demand uncertainty. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020, the Company experienced protracted timelines and shortages for delivery of product as well as delays in the ability to transact business due to remotely accessing customer representatives and their decision makers.

 

The manufacture of product components, the final assembly of our products and other critical operations are concentrated in certain geographic locations that have been impacted by COVID-19, and local governments continue to take measures to try to contain the pandemic. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the impact of such measures and potential future measures, including restrictions on manufacturing facilities, on our support operations or workforce, or on our customers, partners, vendors and suppliers. Such measures, as well as restrictions or disruptions of transportation, such as reduced availability or increased cost of air transport, port closures and increased border controls or closures, could limit our capacity to meet customer demand and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices as the Company complies with state mandated requirements for safety in the workplace to ensure the health, safety and welling-being of our employees. These measures include personal protective equipment, social distancing, cleanliness of the facilities and daily monitoring of the health of employees in our facilities, as well as modifying our policies on employee travel and the cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events and conferences. We may take further actions as required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners and suppliers. However, we have not developed a specific and comprehensive contingency plan designed to address the challenges and risks presented by the COVID-19 pandemic and, even if and when we do develop such a plan, there can be no assurance that such plan will be effective in mitigating the potential adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, while the extent and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business in particular is difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of global financial markets, which may reduce our ability to access capital or our customers’ ability to pay us for past or future purchases, which could negatively affect our liquidity. A recession or financial market correction resulting from the lack of containment and spread of COVID-19 could impact overall technology spending, adversely affecting demand for our products, our business and the value of our common stock.

 

The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, will depend on future developments, including, but not limited to, the duration and continued spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the disease or treat its impact, further related restrictions on travel, and the duration, timing and severity of the impact on customer spending, including any recession resulting from the pandemic, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. An extended period of global supply chain and economic disruption as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material negative impact on our business, results of operations, access to sources of liquidity and financial condition, though the full extent and duration is uncertain.

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The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact our business and could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business has begun to be negatively affected by a range of external factors related to COVID-19 that are not within our control. For example, numerous measures have been implemented by governmental authorities across the globe to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, restrictions and limitations of public gatherings, and business limitations and shutdowns. Many of our customers’ businesses have been severely impacted by these measures and some have been required to reduce employee headcount as a result. If a significant number of our customers are unable to continue as a going concern, this would have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition. In addition, many of our customers are working remotely, which may delay the timing of new business and implementations of our services. If COVID-19 continues to have a substantial impact on our partners, customers, or suppliers, our results of operations and overall financial performance will be harmed.

The impacts of COVID-19 on our business, customers, partners, suppliers, employees, markets and financial results and condition are uncertain, evolving and dependent on numerous unpredictable factors outside of our control, including:

 

the spread, duration and severity of COVID-19 as a public health matter and its impact on governments, businesses and society generally and our clients, partners, suppliers and our business more specifically;

 

the measures being taken by governments, businesses and society in response to COVID-19 and the effectiveness of those measures, including our suppliers in China experiencing delays due to the Chinese government’s response to COVID-19;

 

the scope and effectiveness of fiscal and monetary stimulus programs and other legislative and regulatory measures being implemented by federal, state and local governments in response to COVID-19;

 

the duration and impact of the numerous measures implemented by governmental authorities throughout the country to contain COVID-19, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, restrictions and limitations on public gatherings, and business limitations and shutdowns;

 

the increase in business failures or slowdowns among our customers, suppliers, and other businesses;

 

the pace and extent to which our customers and other businesses are able to operate and/or reduce their number of employees and other compensated individual; the willingness of current and prospective clients to invest in our products and services; and

 

the satisfaction of customers with product and service remote delivery and support

If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business will be harmed.

At present, it is clear the global economy has been negatively impacted by COVID-19, and demand for some of our products and services has been reduced due to uncertainty and the economic impact of COVID-19. For example, during the year, a customer in certain of the industries most impacted by COVID-19, requested, and we expect will continue to request, relief to existing contracts or the timing of payment obligations. For example, some customers are delaying payments owed to the Company while they address immediate financial crises in their operations due to COVID-19. In particular, in the media and entertainment and commercial airlines industries, demand for the use of outdoor media equipment has been impacted due to restrictions on public gatherings and the airlines industry has been impacted by reduced travel. Until such restrictions improve, we expect that demand for certain of our clients’ products and services will be limited, and thus, may impact our financial results and operations.

More generally, COVID-19 raises the possibility of an extended global economic downturn, which could affect demand for our products and services and impact our results and financial condition even after the pandemic is contained and remediation/restriction measures are lifted. For example, we may be unable to collect receivables from customers that are significantly impacted by COVID-19. Also, a decrease in orders in a given period could negatively affect our revenues in future periods. 

Though management has been proactively managing through the current known impacts, if the situation further deteriorates or the outbreak results in further restriction on both supply and demand factors, our cash flows, financial position and operating results for 2021 and beyond will be negatively impacted. Neither the length of time nor the magnitude of the negative impacts can be presently determined.

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The longer the COVID-19 pandemic persists, the greater the potential for significant adverse impact to our business operations.   Quarantines, travel restrictions, prohibitions on non-essential gatherings, shelter-in-place orders and other similar directives and policies intended to reduce the spread of the disease, may reduce our productivity and that of the third parties on which we rely and may disrupt and delay many aspects of our business.

 

Business disruptions could harm our business, lead to a decline in revenues and increase our costs.

 

Our worldwide operations could be disrupted by earthquakes, telecommunications failures, power or water shortages, outages at cloud service providers, tsunamis, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, cyber-attacks, terrorist attacks, medical epidemics or pandemics (including, but not limited to, COVID-19) and other natural or man-made disasters, catastrophic events or climate change. The occurrence of any of these disruptions could harm our business and result in significant losses, a decline in revenue and an increase in our costs and expenses. Any of these business disruptions could require substantial expenditures and recovery time in order to fully resume operations. Our corporate headquarters, and a portion of our research and development activities, are located in California, and other critical business operations, finished goods inventory, and some of our suppliers are located in Europe and Asia, near major earthquake faults known for seismic activity. The manufacture of product components, the final assembly of our products and other critical operations are concentrated in certain geographic locations, including California, Germany, and China. Geopolitical change or changes in government regulations and policies in the United States or abroad may result in changing regulatory requirements, trade policies, import duties and economic disruptions that could impact our operating strategies, product demand, access to global markets, hiring, and profitability. In particular, revisions to laws or regulations or their interpretation and enforcement could result in increased taxation, trade sanctions, the imposition of import duties or tariffs, restrictions and controls on imports or exports, or other retaliatory actions, which could have an adverse effect on our business plans. For example, regulations to implement the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 could have an adverse effect on our business plans. Catastrophic events can also have an impact on third-party vendors who provide us with critical infrastructure services for IT and research and development systems and personnel. In addition, geopolitical and domestic political developments, such as existing and potential trade wars, political or social unrest, elections and post-election developments, and other events beyond our control, can increase levels of political and economic unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial markets. Political instability or adverse political developments in or around any of the major countries in which we do business would also likely harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our operations could be harmed if manufacturing, logistics or other operations in these locations are disrupted for any reason, including natural disasters, high heat events or water shortages, information technology system failures, military actions or economic, business, labor, environmental, public health, regulatory or political issues. The ultimate impact on us, our third-party vendors and other suppliers and our general infrastructure of being located near major earthquake faults and being consolidated in certain geographical areas is unknown. In the event a major earthquake or other disaster or catastrophic event affects us or the third-party systems on which we rely, our business could be harmed as a result of declines in revenue, increases in expenses, substantial expenditures and time spent to fully resume operations. All of these risks and conditions could materially adversely affect our future sales and operating results.

 

A reversal of the U.S. economic recovery and a return to volatile or recessionary conditions in the United States or abroad could adversely affect our business or our access to capital markets in a material manner.

 

Worsening economic and market conditions, downside shocks, or a return to recessionary economic conditions could severely reduce demand for our products and adversely affect our operating results. These economic conditions may also impact the financial condition of one or more of our key suppliers, which could affect our ability to secure product to meet our customers’ demand.  Our results of operations and the implementation of our business strategy could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy.  An economic downturn may cause uncertainty in the capital and credit markets and could have a material adverse effect on us. We could also be adversely affected by such factors as changes in foreign currency rates, weak economies, and political conditions in each of the countries in which we sell our products.

The market for our products is developing and may not develop as we expect.

The market for cutting-edge, high performance computing products is characterized by rapid advances in technologies. We believe our future success will depend in large part on our ability to develop products, new business initiatives and creating innovative and custom designs for our customers. The growth of server clusters, specialized or high-performance applications, and hosted software solutions which require fast and efficient data processing, is crucial to our success. It is difficult to predict the development of the demand for high performance computing, supercomputers, and related hardware solutions, the size and growth rate for this market, the entry of competitive products, or the success of existing competitive products. Any expansion in our market depends on several factors, including the demand, cost, performance, and perceived value associated with our products. If our products are not adopted or there is a reduction in demand for our products caused by a lack of customer acceptance, a slowdown in demand for computational power, an overabundance of unused computational power, technological challenges, competing technologies and products, decreases in corporate spending, weakening economic conditions, or otherwise, it could result in reduced customer orders, early order cancellations, the loss of customers, or decreased sales, any of which would adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.

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Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.

Our quarterly and annual operating results have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate significantly in the future, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. The timing and size of sales of our products are variable and difficult to predict and can result in fluctuations in our net sales from period to period. In addition, our budgeted expense levels depend in part on our expectation of future sales. Any substantial adjustment to expenses to account for lower levels of sales is difficult and takes time, thus we may not be able to reduce our costs sufficiently to compensate for a shortfall in net sales, and even a small shortfall in net sales could disproportionately and adversely affect our operating margin and operating results for a given quarter.

Our operating results may also fluctuate due to a variety of other factors, many of which are outside our control, including the changing and volatile local, national, and international economic environments, any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. Besides the other risks in this “Risk Factors” section, factors that may affect our operations include:

 

fluctuations in demand for our products and services;

 

the inherent complexity, length, and associated unpredictability of product development windows and product lifecycles;

 

changes in customers’ budgets for technology purchases and delays in their purchasing cycles;

 

changing market conditions;

 

any significant changes in the competitive dynamics of our markets, including new entrants, or further consolidation;

 

our ability to continue to broaden our customer base beyond our traditional customers;

 

the timing of product releases or upgrades by us or our competitors; and

 

our ability to develop, introduce, and ship in a timely manner new products and product enhancements and anticipate future market demands that meet our customers’ requirements.

Each of these factors individually, or the cumulative effect of two or more of these factors, could result in large fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of future performance.

Our products are subject to competition, including competition from the customers to whom we sell.

Servers, computer accelerators, flash storage arrays, PCIe expansion products, and other products that we design, manufacture, and sell or license are subject to competition. The computer hardware and technology fields are well established with limited, and in many cases no, intellectual property and technological barriers to entry. The markets in which we operate are competitive and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. The markets are influenced by, among others, brand awareness and reputation, price, strength and scale of sales and marketing efforts, professional services and customer support, product features, reliability and performance, scalability of products, and breadth of product offerings. Due to the nature of our products, competition occurs at the design, performance, and sales stages. A design or sales win by us does not limit further competition and our customers may purchase competitive products from third parties at any time. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses and failure to increase, or the loss of, market share, any of which would likely seriously harm our business, operating results or financial condition. From a cost and control perspective, our products are specialized and thus generally cost more than our competitors’ products. If our ability to design specialized solutions is deemed to be on par or of lesser value than competing solutions, we could lose our customers and prospects.

Many of our customers and competitors, often with substantially more resources or larger economies of scale, produce products that are competitive with our products. Many of these third parties mass-produce hardware solutions and have not heavily invested in or allocated resources to the smaller scale specialized products and solutions we design. A decrease in the cost of general mass-produced hardware solutions, which can serve as a substitute for our products, or the entrance of or additional allocation of resources by one of these customers or competitors into the production of specialized systems which compete with our products could create increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses, or the loss of market share or expected market share, any of which may significantly harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

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New entrants and the introduction of other distribution models in our markets may harm our competitive position.

The markets for development, distribution, and sale of our high-performance computing solutions are rapidly evolving. New entrants seeking to gain market share by introducing new technology, new products and new server configurations may make it more difficult for us to sell our products and earn design wins which could create increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses, or the loss of market share or expected market share, any of which may significantly harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

Large computer hardware and equipment manufacturers and suppliers have traditionally designed, produced, and sold general purpose servers, and storage arrays and related products and equipment. Our customers supplement these general purpose systems by purchasing our specialized or customized systems or supplemental products which improve the speed, efficiency, or performance of such systems. If the speed, efficiency, or computational power of such general purpose systems increases such that supplemental or specialized products become unnecessary, or the cost of such general purpose systems declines such that it is more cost effective for prospective customers to add general-purpose equipment rather than specialized or supplemental equipment, we could experience a significant decline in demand for the products which may significantly harm to our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our products compete with and supplement general purpose servers, storage systems and related equipment. If the producers of general purpose equipment implement proprietary standards, software, interfaces, or other interoperability restrictions, including controls which restrict the equipment’s compatibility with third party systems, we could experience a significant decline in sales because our products would not be interoperable with such systems, resulting in significant harm to our business, operating results and financial condition.

In our marketplace, general-purpose equipment is traditionally mass-produced and available to order while specialized equipment and custom bulk-order equipment is subject to a bid-based purchase system. If one or more large manufacturers of general or standard servers storage arrays, or related products and equipment provide specialized, customized, or supplementary equipment on a made-to-order or generally available basis, we could be forced to reduce our prices or change our selling model to remain competitive which would significantly harm to our business, operating results and financial condition.

If we are unable to manage our growth and expand our operations successfully, our business and operating results will be harmed, and our reputation may be damaged.

We have expanded our operations significantly since inception and anticipate that further significant expansion will be required to achieve our business objectives. The growth and expansion of our business and product offerings places a continuous and significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources. Any such future growth would also add complexity to and require effective coordination throughout our organization. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems and controls, and our ability to manage headcount, capital and processes in an efficient manner. We may not be able to successfully implement improvements to these systems and processes in a timely or efficient manner, which could result in additional operating inefficiencies and could cause our costs to increase more than planned. If we do increase our operating expenses in anticipation of the growth of our business and this growth does not meet our expectations, our operating results may be negatively impacted. If we are unable to manage future expansion, our ability to provide high quality products and services could be harmed, which could damage our reputation and brand, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

A limited number of customers represent a significant portion of our sales. If we were to lose any of these customers, our sales could decrease significantly.

In the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, approximately 24.1%, and 41.0% of net sales represent customers which are greater than 10% of our consolidated annual revenue.  This concentration is with two customers, disguise and Raytheon.

In addition, a few products comprise a significant amount of our sales, and the discontinuation, modification, or obsolescence of such products may materially and adversely affect our sales and results of operations. Any loss of, or a significant reduction in purchases by, these other significant customers or a decrease in the high performance applications that drive the use of our products, or the modification, discontinuation, or obsolescence of a device which constitutes a significant portion of our sales could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

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Some of our contracts allow our customers to have access to the design drawings for products which we have designed and manufacture for them.

Some of our contracts allow our customers to have access to the design drawings for products which we have designed and manufactured for them.  In some cases, these drawings are included as a deliverable in conjunction with their non-recurring engineering fee, and in other cases, an additional fee is required to obtain the drawings package.  Since these customers have access to the drawings, there is no guarantee that they will continue to purchase the manufactured products from OSS.  This arrangement applies to our large media and entertainment customer, several of CDI’s customers, and other customers of OSS as well.  Neither our media and entertainment customer, nor our current CDI customers have had any of the OSS-designed products manufactured by anyone other than OSS, but they may have the capability to do so in the future.

We rely on a limited number of parts suppliers to support our manufacturing and design processes.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers to provide us with the necessary devices, parts and systems to allow us to build, design and manufacture our products, and the failure to manage our relationships with these parties successfully could adversely affect our ability to market and sell our products. In the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, suppliers for which purchases represent greater than 10% of our total parts purchases accounted for approximately 18.3%, and 11%, of materials purchased respectively.  This concentration is with one supplier, Concisys Inc.

Although we do believe we could locate additional suppliers to fulfill our needs, any significant change in our relationship with these suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition unless and until we are able to find suitable replacements. We make substantially all of our purchases from our contract suppliers on a purchase order basis. Our suppliers are not required to supply our raw materials for any specific period or in any specific quantity or price.

Global pandemics or other disasters or public health concerns in regions of the world where we have operations or source material or sell products, such as outbreaks of novel coronavirus or H1N1 flu could result in the disruption of our business. Specifically, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased travel restrictions and extended shutdowns of certain businesses in the region. These or any governmental developments or health concerns in countries in which we operate could result in social, economic, or labor instability. Although we are monitoring the situation regularly, it is currently unknown whether the outbreak will continue to disrupt our product shipments or impact manufacturing in the region over a prolonged period. If such disruption were to extend over a prolonged period, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and our financial results. Any disruption resulting from similar events could also cause significant delays in shipments of our products until we are able to resume normalized operations and this could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and cash flows.

Our future success depends on our ability to develop and successfully introduce new and enhanced products that meet the needs of our customers.

Our sales depend on our ability to anticipate our existing and prospective customers’ needs and develop products that address those needs. Our future success will depend on our ability to design new products, anticipate technological improvements and enhancements, and to develop products that are competitive in the rapidly changing computer hardware and software industry. Introduction of new products and product enhancements will require coordination of our efforts with those of our customers, suppliers, and manufacturers to develop products that offer performance features desired by our customers and performance and functionality superior or more cost effective than solutions offered by our competitors. If we fail to coordinate these efforts, develop product enhancements or introduce new products that meet the needs of our customers as scheduled, our operating results will be materially and adversely affected, and our business and prospects will be harmed. We cannot assure that product introductions will meet our anticipated release schedules or that our products will be competitive in the market. Furthermore, given the rapidly changing nature of the computer equipment market, there can be no assurance our products and technology will not be rendered obsolete by alternative or competing technologies.

Delays in our production cycle could result in outdated equipment or decreased purchases of our products.

The design and manufacture of our products can take several months to several years. The length of such process depends on the complexity and purpose of the system or equipment being designed, and may be affected by factors such as: the development and design of unique or specialized systems, the fabrication, availability, and supply of parts, the customization of parts as applicable, the manufacture and/or assembly of the units, quality control testing, and the development and incorporation of new technologies. If our products are outdated upon completion of this process our sales could materially decline and it may be necessary to sell products at a loss.

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Unsuccessful government programs or OEM contracts could lead to reduced revenues.

We design and manufacture certain products to fit the specifications of government programs or OEM contracts. These programs may take months or years to complete and involve significant investment of our time, money and resources. We generally receive upfront fees for these programs but there is often no or little obligation on the part of our customer to purchase large volumes of products at the time of final product launch. Unsuccessful product launches could lead to reduced revenues, potential returns of products and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. We may be forced to sell products at a loss or spend a significant amount of resources to find additional customers for these products if these programs do not fit the future needs of our intended customers.

Our inventory may rapidly become obsolete.

Sales cycles for some of our products can take several months or longer. In addition, it can take time from the bid to the development and manufacture of the equipment. We maintain inventory based in large part on our forecasts of the volume and timing of orders. The varying length of the sales cycles makes accurate forecasting difficult. The delays inherent in our sales cycles raise the risk that the inventory we have on hand will become obsolete or impaired prior to its use or sale. If our forecasted demand does not materialize into purchase orders, we may be required to write off our inventory balances or reduce the value of our inventory, based on a reduced sales price. A write off of the inventory, or a reduction in the inventory value due to a sales price reduction, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

 

If our products contain significant defects, we could incur significant expenses to remediate such defects, our reputation could be damaged, and we could lose market share.

 

Our products are complex and may contain defects or security vulnerabilities, or experience failures or unsatisfactory performance due to any number of issues in design, fabrication, packaging, materials and/or use within a system. These risks may increase as our products are introduced into new devices, markets, technologies and applications, or as new versions are released. Some errors in our products or services may only be discovered after a product or service has been shipped or used by customers or the end users of such product. Undiscovered vulnerabilities in our products or services could expose our customers or end users to hackers or other unscrupulous third parties who develop and deploy viruses, worms and other malicious software programs that could attack our products or services. Failure of our products to perform to specifications, or other product defects, could lead to substantial damage to the products we sell directly to customers, the end product in which our device has been integrated by OEMs and to the user of such end product. Any such defect may cause us to incur significant warranty, support and repair or replacement costs, write off the value of related inventory, cause us to lose market share, and divert the attention of our personnel from our product development efforts to find and correct the issue. In addition, an error or defect in new products or releases or related software drivers after commencement of commercial shipments could result in failure to achieve market acceptance or loss of design wins, harm our relationships with customers and partners and harm consumers’ perceptions of our brand. Also, we may be required to reimburse our customers, partners or consumers, including costs to repair or replace products in the field. A product recall, including a recall due to a bug in our products, or a significant number of product returns could be expensive, damage our reputation, harm our ability to attract new customers, result in the shifting of business to our competitors and result in litigation against us, such as product liability suits. If a product liability claim is brought against us, the cost of defending the claim could be significant and would divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, and harm our business. Further, our business liability insurance may be inadequate or future coverage may be unavailable on acceptable terms, which could adversely impact our financial results.

We offer an extended product warranty to cover defective products at no cost to the customer. An unexpected change in failure rates of our products could have a material adverse impact on our business.

We offer product warranties that generally extend for one or two years from date of sale that requires us to repair or replace defective products returned by the customer during the warranty period at no cost to the customer. Our product warranties are in addition to warranties we receive from our vendors. We record an estimate for anticipated warranty-related costs based on historical and estimated future product return rates and expected repair or replacement costs. While such costs have historically been within management’s expectations and the provisions established and we receive warranty coverage from our vendors, unexpected changes in failure rates could have a material adverse impact on our business requiring additional warranty reserves. These failures could adversely impact our operating results.

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If we fail to achieve design wins for our products, our business will be harmed.

Achieving design wins is an important success factor for our business. We work closely with OEM’s and end users to ensure the customer gets the product they want in the specific configuration, size and weight required for the application. We have participated in many design wins based upon our ability to interpret technical specifications and proceed rapidly through prototyping, development, and delivery. This approach and expertise are two of the factors driving our growth. Failure to maintain our expertise and ability to deliver custom, specific design systems could harm our business. In order to achieve design wins, we must:

 

anticipate the features and functionality that OEMs, customers and consumers will demand;

 

incorporate those features and functionalities into products that meet the exacting design requirements of our customers; and

 

price our products competitively.

Unanticipated changes in industry standards could render our products incompatible with products developed by major hardware manufacturers and software developers. Further, if our products are not in compliance with prevailing industry standards, our customers may not incorporate our products into their design strategies.

If we cannot retain, attract and motivate key personnel, we may be unable to effectively implement our business plan.

Our success depends in large part upon our ability to retain, attract and motivate highly skilled management, development, marketing, sales and service personnel. The loss of and failure to replace key technical management and personnel could adversely affect multiple development efforts. Recruitment and retention of senior management and skilled technical, sales and other personnel is very competitive, and we may not be successful in either attracting or retaining such personnel. We have lost key personnel to other high technology companies, and many larger companies with significantly greater resources than us having aggressively recruited, and continue to aggressively recruit, key personnel. As part of our strategy to attract and retain key personnel, we may offer equity compensation through grants of stock options, restricted stock awards or restricted stock units. Potential employees, however, may not perceive our equity incentives as attractive enough. In addition, due to the intense competition for qualified employees, we may be required to, and have had to, increase the level of compensation paid to existing and new employees, which could materially increase our operating expenses.

We have made in the past, and may make in the future, acquisitions which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, result in dilution to our stockholders, deplete our cash reserves and adversely affect our financial results.

Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including the following:

 

difficulties in successfully integrating the operations, systems, technologies, products, offerings and personnel of the acquired company or companies;

 

insufficient revenue to offset increased expenses associated with acquisitions;

 

diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business and the challenges of managing larger and more widespread operations resulting from acquisitions;

 

potential difficulties in completing projects associated with in-process research and development intangibles;

 

difficulties in entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience and where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions;

 

initial dependence on unfamiliar supply chains or relatively small supply partners; and

 

the potential loss of key employees, customers, distributors, vendors and other business partners of the companies we acquire following and continuing after announcement of acquisition plans.

Acquisitions may also cause us to:

 

use a substantial portion of our cash reserves or incur debt;

 

issue equity securities or grant equity incentives to acquired employees that would dilute our current stockholders’ percentage ownership;

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assume liabilities, including potentially unknown liabilities;

 

record goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges;

 

incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets;

 

incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses; or

 

become subject to intellectual property litigation or other litigation.

Acquisitions of high-technology companies and assets are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control and no assurance can be given that our recently completed or future acquisitions will be successful and will not materially adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition. Failure to manage and successfully integrate acquisitions could materially harm our business and operating results.

The continuing commoditization of HPC hardware and software has resulted in increased pricing pressure and may adversely affect our operating results.

The continuing commoditization of HPC hardware, such as processors, interconnects, flash storage and other infrastructure, and the growing commoditization of software, including plentiful building blocks and more capable open source software, as well as the potential for integration of differentiated technology into already-commoditized components, has resulted in, and may result in increased pricing pressure that may cause us to reduce our pricing in order to remain competitive, which can negatively impact our gross margins and adversely affect our operating results.

Risks Relating to Intellectual Property

If we are unable to protect our proprietary design and intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed, or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.

Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on patents, trademarks, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. There can be no assurance these protections will be available in all cases or will be adequate to prevent our competitors from copying, reverse engineering or otherwise obtaining and using our technology, proprietary rights or products. For example, the laws of certain countries in which our products are manufactured or licensed do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. In addition, third parties may seek to challenge, invalidate or circumvent our patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, or applications for any of the foregoing. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our technology or design around our proprietary rights. In each case, our ability to compete could be significantly impaired. To prevent substantial unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement and/or misappropriation of our trade secrets and/or proprietary rights against third parties. Any such action could result in significant costs and diversion of our resources and management’s attention, and there can be no assurance we will be successful in such action. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our trade secrets and/or intellectual property.

Many of our proprietary designs are in digital form and the breach of our computer systems could result in these designs being stolen.

 

If our cybersecurity measures are breached or unauthorized access to private or proprietary data is otherwise obtained, our proprietary designs could be stolen. Because we hold many of these designs in digital form on our servers, there exists an inherent risk that an unauthorized third party could conduct a cybersecurity breach resulting in the theft of our proprietary information. While we have taken cybersecurity steps to protect our proprietary information, because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any or all of these issues could negatively impact our competitive edge and our ability to obtain new customers thereby adversely affecting our financial results.

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Our proprietary designs are susceptible to reverse engineering by our competitors.

Much of the value of our proprietary rights is derived from our vast library of design specifications. While we consider our design specifications to be protected by various proprietary, trade secret and intellectual property laws, such information is susceptible to reverse engineering by our competitors. We may not be able to prevent our competitors from developing competing design specifications and the cost of enforcing these rights may be significant. If we are unable to adequately protect our proprietary designs our financial condition and operating results could suffer.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

We consider trade secrets, including confidential and unpatented know-how and designs important to the maintenance of our competitive position. We protect trade secrets and confidential and unpatented know-how, in part, by customarily entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to such knowledge, such as our employees, outside technical and commercial collaborators, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants that obligate them to maintain confidentiality and assign their inventions to us. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches.

Claims by others that we infringe their intellectual property or trade secret rights could harm our business.

Our industry is characterized by vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights, which has resulted in protracted and expensive litigation for many companies. Third parties may in the future assert claims of infringement of intellectual property rights against us or against our customers or channel partners for which we may be liable. As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur, infringement claims may increase.

Intellectual property or trade secret claims against us, and any resulting lawsuits, may result in us incurring significant expenses and could subject us to significant liability for damages and invalidate what we currently believe are our proprietary rights. Our involvement in any patent dispute or other intellectual property dispute or action to protect trade secrets and know-how could have a material adverse effect on our business. Adverse determinations in any litigation could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties, require us to seek licenses from third parties and prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products. Any of these situations could have a material adverse effect on our business. These claims, regardless of their merits or outcome, would likely be time consuming and expensive to resolve and could divert management’s time and attention.

We are generally obligated to indemnify our channel partners and end-customers for certain expenses and liabilities resulting from intellectual property infringement claims regarding our products, which could force us to incur substantial costs.

We have agreed, and expect to continue to agree, to indemnify our channel partners and end-customers for certain intellectual property infringement claims regarding our products. As a result, in the case of infringement claims against these channel partners and end-customers, we could be required to indemnify them for losses resulting from such claims or to refund amounts they have paid to us. Our channel partners and other end-customers in the future may seek indemnification from us in connection with infringement claims brought.

 

Privacy concerns relating to our products and services could damage our reputation, deter current and potential users from using our products and services, result in liability, or result in legal or regulatory proceedings.

 

Our products and services may provide us with access to sensitive, confidential or personal data or information that is subject to privacy and security laws and regulations. Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, retention, security or disclosure of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our operating results. The theft, loss, or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business or by one of our partners could result in significantly increased security costs, damage to our reputation, regulatory proceedings, disruption of our business activities or increased costs related to defending legal claims.

 

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Worldwide regulatory authorities are considering and have approved various legislative proposals concerning data protection, which continue to evolve and apply to our business. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which requires companies to meet new requirements effective as of May 2018 regarding the handling of personal data, including its use, protection and the ability of persons whose data is stored to correct or delete such data about themselves. Failure to meet GDPR requirements could result in penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the United States, Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and fluid, and may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. If so, we may be ordered to change our data practices and/or be fined. Complying with these changing laws has caused, and could continue to cause, us to incur substantial costs, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Further, failure to comply with existing or new rules may result in significant penalties or orders to stop the alleged noncompliant activity.

Risks Related to Our International Operations

Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that can adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Our international operations subject us to a variety of risks and challenges, including: exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, increased management, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with having international operations; reliance on channel partners; increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities; compliance with foreign laws and regulations; compliance with U.S. laws and regulations for foreign operations; and reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and practical difficulties of enforcing rights abroad. Any of these risks could adversely affect our international operations, reduce our international sales or increase our operating costs, adversely affecting our business, operating results and financial condition and growth prospects.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets due to licensing requirements and subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.

Our products are subject to export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of our products must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. If we violate these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers. In addition, if our channel partners, agents or consultants fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or authorizations, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm and penalties. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular sale may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Changes in our products or changes in applicable export or import laws and regulations may also create delays in the introduction and sale of our products in international markets, prevent our end-customers with international operations from deploying our products or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import laws and regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing laws and regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such laws and regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to existing or potential end-customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

New regulations or standards or changes in existing regulations or standards in the United States or internationally related to our suppliers products may result in unanticipated costs or liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and future sales, and could place additional burdens on the operations of our business.

Our suppliers’ products are subject to governmental regulations in many jurisdictions. To achieve and maintain market acceptance, our suppliers’ products must continue to comply with these regulations and many industry standards. As these regulations and standards evolve, and if new regulations or standards are implemented, our suppliers may have to modify their products. The failure of their products to comply, or delays in compliance, with the existing and evolving industry regulations and standards could prevent or delay introduction of our products, which could harm our business. Supplier uncertainty regarding future policies may also affect demand for HPC products, including our products. Moreover, channel partners or customers may require us, or we may otherwise deem it necessary or advisable, to alter our products to address actual or anticipated changes in the regulatory environment. Our inability to alter our products to address these requirements and any regulatory changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

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We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.

We have international operations. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Practices in the local business communities of many countries outside the United States have a level of government corruption that is greater than that found in the developed world. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws and we have established policies and procedures designed to monitor compliance with these anti-bribery law requirements; however, we cannot assure that our policies and procedures will protect us from potential reckless or criminal acts committed by individual employees or agents. If we are found to be liable for anti-bribery law violations, we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially. The trading price of our common stock will depend on several factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock since you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid.  Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock include:

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

volatility in the market prices and trading volumes of technology stocks;

 

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;

 

sales of shares of our common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

failure of financial analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in those projections or our failure to meet those projections;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of new products or new or terminated significant contracts, commercial relationships or capital commitments;

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

 

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

 

actual or anticipated changes in our operating results or fluctuations in our operating results;

 

actual or anticipated developments in our business or our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;

 

litigation involving us, our industry or both or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

announced or completed acquisitions of businesses or technologies by us or our competitors;

 

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles;

 

any major change in our management;

 

general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets; and

 

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism or responses to these events.

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In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions or interest rate changes, may seriously affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market prices of particular companies’ securities, securities class action litigations have often been instituted against these companies. Litigation of this type, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources. Any adverse determination in any such litigation or any amounts paid to settle any such actual or threatened litigation could require that we make significant payments.

Our directors and principal stockholders own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.

Our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders have substantial control over the Company and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control. Our directors, executive officers and holders of more than 5% of our common stock, together with their affiliates, beneficially own, in the aggregate, 36.0% of our outstanding common stock, based on the number of shares outstanding as of February 28, 2021. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might adversely affect the market price of our common stock by:

 

delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company;

 

impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us; or

 

discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.

If securities or industry analysts issue an adverse opinion regarding our stock or do not publish research or reports about our company, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. We anticipate having limited analyst coverage and we may continue to have inadequate analyst coverage in the future. Even if we obtain adequate analyst coverage, we would have no control over such analysts or the content and opinions in their reports. Securities analysts may elect not to provide research coverage of our company and such lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. The price of our common stock could also decline if one or more equity research analysts downgrade our common stock or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business. If one or more equity research analysts cease coverage of our company, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

Substantial future sales of shares of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

The market price of shares of our common stock could decline as a result of substantial sales of our common stock, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders, a large number of shares of our common stock becoming available for sale or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares. As of February 28, 2021, we have 16,912,312 shares of our common stock outstanding.

Moreover, certain holders of our common stock will have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders.

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Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Some of these provisions:

 

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock and up to 50,000,000 shares of authorized common stock;

 

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be affected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;

 

specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or the president;

 

establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder approvals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;

 

provide that our directors may be removed only for cause; and,

 

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum.

In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock to merge or combine with us. Furthermore, our certificate of incorporation specifies that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for most legal actions involving actions brought against us by stockholders. We believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law by chancellors particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with any applicable action brought against us, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such action.

These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our board of directors or initiate actions that are opposed by the then-current board of directors and could also delay or impede a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing or cause us to take other corporate actions you desire. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our board of directors could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Our inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms in the future may limit our ability to develop and commercialize new solutions and technologies and expand our operations.

If our available cash balances and anticipated cash flow from operations are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements, due to lower demand for our products as a result of other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, we may seek to raise additional capital through equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations or licensing arrangements. We may also consider raising additional capital in the future to expand our business, pursue strategic investments, take advantage of financing opportunities, or other reasons.

Additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to our stockholders could result. Any equity securities issued also may provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. The terms of debt securities issued or borrowings could impose significant restrictions on our operations. The incurrence of indebtedness or the issuance of certain equity securities could result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt or issue additional equity, limitations on our ability to acquire or license intellectual property rights, and other operating restrictions that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. In addition, the issuance of additional equity securities by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. If we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements with third parties, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to our technologies or our products, or to grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to liquidate some or all of our assets, or delay or reduce the scope of our development programs. We also may have to reduce marketing, customer support or other resources devoted to our products or cease operations. Any of these actions could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

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We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to emerging growth companies, which includes, among other things:

 

exemption from the auditor attestation requirements under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

 

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements; and

 

exemption from the requirements of holding non-binding stockholder votes on executive compensation arrangements.

We could be an emerging growth company until the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary after our initial public offering (December 31, 2023), or until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the date on which we have, during the previous three year period, issued more than $1.07 billion in non-convertible debt; or (iii) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the federal securities laws. We will qualify as a large accelerated filer as of the first day of the first fiscal year after we have (i) more than $700 million in outstanding common equity held by our non-affiliates, and (ii) been public for at least 12 months. The value of our outstanding common equity will be measured each year on the last day of our second fiscal quarter.

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

Our corporate headquarters are in a leased space comprising approximately 29,342 square feet in Escondido, California under a lease that was modified in February 2019 and expires in August 2024.  We also lease a 3,208 square foot facility in Salt Lake City, Utah that houses our Ion software development team that is a month-to-month lease. CDI is the lessee of 12,880 square feet located in Irvine, California with the lease expiring in June 2021.  Bressner Technology leases space comprising 8,073 square feet on a month-to-month lease.

The Company believes its existing facilities and equipment are in good operating condition and are suitable for the conduct of its business.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

We are subject to litigation, claims, investigations, and audits arising from time to time in the ordinary course of our business.

On September 29, 2020, the Company’s former Chief Executive Officer, Stephen D. Cooper, commenced an action entitled Stephen D. Cooper v. One Stop Systems, Inc. et al, in San Diego County Superior Court, Case No. 37-2020-00034492-CU-BC-CTL.  Mr. Cooper alleges claims for (1) breach of written contract and (2) violation of California Labor Code Sections 201 and 203 in connection with the Company’s alleged failure to pay unpaid wages and an earned bonus following the Company’s termination of Mr. Cooper’s employment with the Company back in February 2020. Mr. Cooper seeks unspecified compensatory damages and statutory penalties.

The Company has denied Mr. Cooper’s allegations. On December 8, 2020, the Company filed a cross-complaint (“Cross Complaint”) against Mr. Cooper for (1) breach of contract (in connection with a binding commitment letter and Mr. Cooper’s employment agreement), (2) intentional misrepresentation, (3) negligent misrepresentation, and (4) breach of fiduciary duty. The Company is seeking compensatory damages, punitive damages, pre-judgment interest, attorneys’ fees, and the cost of suit incurred in connection with Mr. Cooper’s complaint and the Cross Complaint. The Company intends to vigorously defend all allegations.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not Applicable.

37


PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Market Information

Our common stock, par value $0.0001, has been publicly traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OSS”.  Below is our quarterly information with respect to the high and low sale prices for our common stock for such time periods.

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (through March 15, 2021)

 

$

9.50

 

 

$

3.61

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*  On March 15, 2021, the closing price was $8.40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

First Quarter

 

$

3.01

 

 

$

0.59

 

 

$

3.09

 

 

$

1.78

 

Second Quarter

 

$

2.63

 

 

$

1.15

 

 

$

2.75

 

 

$

1.52

 

Third Quarter

 

$

3.14

 

 

$

1.80

 

 

$

3.04

 

 

$

1.32

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

5.33

 

 

$

2.08

 

 

$

3.25

 

 

$

1.62

 

 

Holders

As of February 28, 2021, there were 16,912,312 shares of our common stock outstanding held by approximately 62 holders of record of our common stock.  This number was derived from our stockholder records and does not include beneficial holders of our common stock whose shares are held in “street name” with various dealers, clearing agencies, banks, brokers and other fiduciaries.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.  We may enter into credit agreements or other borrowing arrangements in the future that will restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends on our common stock. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

See Part III, Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

None.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

Not Applicable.

 

38


ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and operating results together with our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements based upon current beliefs, plans and expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this Annual Report.

Overview

OSS designs, manufactures and sells specialized high-performance edge computing (HPC) systems to customers world-wide.  We differentiate ourselves from other suppliers of HPC solutions by utilizing our high-performance expertise in custom systems design and PCIe expansion to build systems with a greater quantity of PCIe add-in slots, GPU-based compute cards and/or flash cards. These applications require ultra-fast processing power and the ability to quickly access and store ever-growing data sets.  Systems are built using the latest GPU (graphical processing unit) and solid-state flash (memory) technologies.  

 

Our systems offer industry leading capabilities that occupy less physical space and power consumption.  We are a niche provider of HPC custom servers, compute accelerators, and flash storage arrays.  We deliver this technology to customers through sale of equipment and software to customers.  Concept Development Inc., (“CDI”) which was acquired on August 31, 2018, specializes in the design and manufacture of specialized high-performance in-flight entertainment systems for commercial aircraft.  CDI’s capabilities include electrical, mechanical and software design as well as extensive experience in test and certifications required for airborne systems.  Bressner Technology GmbH, (Bressner) which was acquired on October 31, 2018, provides standard and customized servers, panel PCs, and PCIe expansion systems. Bressner provides manufacturing, test, sales and marketing services for customers throughout Europe.

Recent Developments

CDI has been fully integrated into the core operations of OSS as of June 1, 2020.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of Coronavirus, or COVID-19, a global pandemic and the United States federal government declared it a national emergency. COVID-19 continues to impact worldwide economic activity. A public health pandemic, including COVID-19, poses the risk that we or our employees, contractors, customers, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities.

 

More generally, COVID-19 raises the possibility of an extended global economic downturn, which could affect demand for our products and services and impact our results and financial condition even after the pandemic is contained and remediation/restriction measures are lifted. For example, we may be unable to collect receivables from customers that are significantly impacted by COVID-19. Also, a decrease in orders in a given period could negatively affect our revenues in future periods. COVID-19 may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, including risks associated with our customers and supply chain. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact of COVID-19 to our business.

 

At present, it is clear the global economy has been negatively impacted by COVID-19, and demand for some of our products and services have been reduced due to uncertainty and the economic impact of COVID-19. For example, customers in certain of the industries most impacted by COVID-19, have requested, and we expect will continue to request, relief to existing contracts or payment obligations, and the impact of those is uncertain. Furthermore, some customers are delaying payments owed to the Company while they address immediate financial crises in their operations due to COVID-19. In particular, in the media and entertainment industry, demand for the use of outdoor media equipment has been impacted due to restrictions on public gatherings. Until such restrictions improve, we expect that demand for certain of our clients’ products and services will be limited, and may not return to prior levels, and thus, may impact our financial results and operations.

 

Specifically, our business has also begun to be negatively affected by a range of external factors related to COVID-19 that are not within our control. For example, numerous measures have been implemented by governmental authorities across the globe to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, restrictions and limitations of public gatherings, and business limitations and shutdowns. Many of our customers’ businesses have been severely impacted by these measures and some have been required to reduce employee headcount as a result. If a significant

39


number of our customers are unable to continue as a going concern, this would have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition. In addition, many of our customers are working remotely, which may delay the timing of new business and implementations of our services. If COVID-19 continues to have a substantial impact on our partners, customers, or suppliers, our results of operations and overall financial performance will be harmed.

Though management has been proactively managing through the current known impacts, if the situation further deteriorates or the outbreak results in further restriction on both supply and demand factors, our cash flows, financial position and operating results for 2021 and beyond will be negatively impacted. Neither the length of time nor the magnitude of the negative impacts can be presently determined.

The longer the COVID-19 pandemic persists, the greater the potential for significant adverse impact to our business operations.   Quarantines, travel restrictions, prohibitions on non-essential gatherings, shelter-in-place orders and other similar directives and policies intended to reduce the spread of the disease, may reduce our productivity and that of the third parties on which we rely and may disrupt and delay many aspects of our business.

The Company is complying with state mandated requirements for safety in the workplace to ensure the health, safety and welling-being of our employees.  These measures included personal protective equipment, social distancing, cleanliness of the facilities and daily monitoring of the health of employees in our facilities.  We have not developed a specific and comprehensive contingency plan designed to address the challenges and risks presented by the COVID-19 pandemic and, even if and when we do develop such a plan, there can be no assurance that such plan will be effective in mitigating the potential adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

On February 15, 2020, Steve Cooper was terminated as President and CEO of One Stop Systems, Inc., and was replaced by David Raun who is now the president and CEO of the Company.

On April 7, 2020, the Company implemented a cost reduction plan which included the termination of certain employees and elimination of certain costs.  Savings from this effort are estimated to be approximately $2.5 million on an annual basis.  

On April 24, 2020, the Company completed a $6.0 million debt financing on a non-interest bearing convertible note with a 10% original issue discount.  The first tranche of $3.0 million was received on April 27, 2020, with an additional $3.0 million available seven months from the date of closing at the option of the Company conditioned upon meeting certain requirements which have been satisfied.  The note is repayable in twenty-two installments beginning three months after closing in cash or shares of the Company’s common stock. 

On March 1, 2021, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with an accredited investor, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell, in a registered direct offering, 1,497,006 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, to the purchaser at an offering price of $6.68 per share. The registered offering was conducted pursuant to the Company’s effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-231513), which was initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 15, 2019, and was declared effective on June 19, 2019. As compensation for their services, the Company paid to the placement agents a fee equal to 7% of the gross proceeds received by the Company as a result of the registered offering, and reimbursed the placement agents for certain expenses incurred in connection with such offering. The Company estimates that the net proceeds from the registered offering will be approximately $9.25 million after deducting certain fees due to the placement agents’ and the Company’s estimated transaction expenses. The net proceeds received by the Company will be used for general corporate and working capital purposes.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

 

The Company recognizes revenue under accounting standard ASC 606.  Revenue is primarily generated from the sale of computer hardware and engineering services and to some extent the sale of software, and sales of software maintenance and support contracts.   The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as work is performed or at a point in time. The majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when products ship and control is transferred to the customer. The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps: (1) identification of the contract with a customer; (2) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determination of the transaction price; (4) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied.

40


Cost of revenue

Cost of revenue primarily consists of costs of materials, costs paid to third-party contract manufacturers (which may include the costs of components), and personnel costs associated with manufacturing and support operations. Personnel costs consist of wages, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expenses. Cost of revenue also includes freight, allocated overhead costs and inventory write-offs and changes to our inventory and warranty reserves. Allocated overhead costs consist of certain facilities and utility costs. We expect cost of revenue to increase in absolute dollars with an improvement in margin, as product revenue increases.

Operating expenses

Our operating expenses consist of general and administrative, sales and marketing and research and development expenses. Salaries and personnel-related costs, benefits, and stock-based compensation expense, are the most significant components of each category of operating expenses. Operating expenses also include allocated overhead costs for facilities and utility costs.

General and Administrative - General and administrative expense consists primarily of employee compensation and related expenses for administrative functions including finance, legal, human resources and fees for third-party professional services, as well as allocated overhead. We expect our general and administrative expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in growing the business.

Marketing and Sales – Marketing and Sales expense consists primarily of employee compensation and related expenses, sales commissions, marketing programs, travel and entertainment expenses as well as allocated overhead. Marketing programs consist of advertising, tradeshows, events, corporate communications and brand-building activities. We expect marketing and sales expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we expand our sales force, increase marketing resources, and further develop sales channels.

Research and Development - Research and development expense consists primarily of employee compensation and related expenses, prototype expenses, depreciation associated with assets acquired for research and development, third-party engineering and contractor support costs, as well as allocated overhead. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in new and existing products.

Other Income (Expense), net

Other income consists of miscellaneous income and income received for activities outside of our core business.  Other expense includes expenses for activities outside of our core business.  

Provision for Income Taxes

Provision for income taxes consists of estimated income taxes due to the United States and German governments as well as state tax authorities in jurisdictions in which we conduct business, along with the change in our deferred income tax assets and liabilities.

41


Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 respectively, presented in dollars and as a percentage of net revenue.

 

 

 

For the Year

Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Revenue

 

$

51,895,388

 

 

$

58,308,019

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

35,460,774

 

 

 

38,905,756

 

Gross profit

 

 

16,434,614

 

 

 

19,402,263

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

8,418,358

 

 

 

8,501,572

 

Impairment of goodwill

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,697,394

 

Marketing and selling

 

 

4,120,778

 

 

 

5,138,762

 

Research and development

 

 

4,319,759

 

 

 

4,843,554

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

16,858,895

 

 

 

20,181,282

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(424,281

)

 

 

(779,019

)

Other (expense) income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

418,379

 

 

 

151,113

 

Interest expense

 

 

(550,774

)

 

 

(165,560

)

Other (expense) income, net

 

 

(53,612

)

 

 

130,381

 

Total other (expense) income, net

 

 

(186,007

)

 

 

115,934

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(610,288

)

 

 

(663,085

)

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

 

 

(603,744

)

 

 

237,252

 

Net loss

 

$

(6,544

)

 

$

(900,337

)


42


 

 

For the Year

Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Revenue

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

100.0

%

Cost of revenue

 

 

68.3

%

 

 

66.7

%

Gross profit

 

 

31.7

%

 

 

33.3

%

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

16.2

%

 

 

14.6

%

Impairment of goodwill

 

 

0.0

%

 

 

2.9

%

Marketing and selling

 

 

7.9

%

 

 

8.8

%

Research and development

 

 

8.3

%

 

 

8.3

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

32.5

%

 

 

34.6

%

Loss from operations

 

 

-0.8

%

 

 

-1.3

%

Other (expense) income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

0.8

%

 

 

0.3

%

Interest expense

 

 

-1.1

%

 

 

-0.3

%

Other (expense) income, net

 

 

-0.1

%

 

 

0.2

%

Total other (expense) income, net

 

 

-0.4

%

 

 

0.2

%

Loss before income taxes

 

 

-1.2

%

 

 

-1.1

%

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

 

 

-1.2

%

 

 

0.4

%

Net loss

 

 

0.0

%

 

 

-1.5

%

 

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

 

 

 

For The Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

 

For The Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

Entity:

 

Revenue

 

 

Cost of

Revenue

 

 

Gross

Margin

 

 

Gross

Margin

%

 

 

Revenue

 

 

Cost of

Revenue

 

 

Gross

Margin

 

 

Gross

Margin

%

 

OSS

 

$

33,650,019

 

 

$

(21,081,787

)

 

$

12,568,232

 

 

 

37.3

%

 

$

40,055,408

 

 

$

(24,762,812

)

 

$

15,292,596

 

 

 

38.2

%

Bressner Technology GmbH

 

 

18,245,369

 

 

 

(14,378,987

)

 

 

3,866,382

 

 

 

21.2

%

 

 

18,252,611

 

 

 

(14,142,944

)

 

 

4,109,667

 

 

 

22.5

%

 

 

$

51,895,388

 

 

$

(35,460,774

)

 

$

16,434,614

 

 

 

31.7

%

 

$

58,308,019

 

 

$

(38,905,756

)

 

$

19,402,263

 

 

 

33.3

%

Revenue

 

For the year ended December 31, 2020, total revenue decreased $6,412,631 or 11.0%, as compared to the same period in 2019.  OSS saw a decrease in revenue of $6,405,389 or 16.0 percentage points as compared to the prior year.  The majority of this decrease is attributable to a reduction in shipments of $10,978,121 to our two largest customers of which $8,057,289 is attributable to our media and entertainment customer which saw a significant reduction in business resulting from COVID -19 restrictions. Reductions in revenue were offset by new business of which $6,621,676 was from four customers for which the incremental revenue was more than one million dollars from each customer. There was also a small decrease of $7,242 or a decrease of 0.04 percentage points attributable to Bressner.

Cost of revenue and gross profit

 

Cost of revenue decreased by $3,444,982 or 8.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year 2019. The decrease in cost of revenue was mainly attributable to our reduced sales and changes in product mix.  OSS saw a decrease in cost of revenue of $3,681,025 or 9.5 percentage points as compared to the prior year. Bressner’s cost of revenue increased $236,043 or 0.6 percentage points.  

 

The overall gross margin percentage decreased from 33.3% for the year ended December 31, 2019 to 31.7% for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of 1.6 percentage points.  OSS’ gross margin percentage for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 37.3%, a decrease of 0.9 percentage points as compared to the prior year of 38.2% attributable to changes in product mix.  Bressner contributed gross margin at a rate of 21.2% as compared to the prior year 2019 of 22.5%, a decrease of 1.3 percentage points which was attributable to a change in product mix.  

43


Operating expenses

General and administrative expense

 

General and administrative expense decreased $83,214 or 1.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year 2019.  OSS experienced an increase of $10,434 which was offset by a decrease at Bressner of $93,648.  The decrease in general and administrative expense was primarily attributable to cost containment efforts implemented in April 2020.  Much of the current year benefit derived from this cost containment effort was offset by increased costs associated with the termination benefits for employees released in April 2020 and the termination of our previous president and CEO. Overall, total general and administrative expense increased as a percentage of revenue to 16.2% during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 14.6% during the same period in 2019, which is attributable to the lower revenue in 2020.

 

Impairment of goodwill

 

During the prior year 2019, the Company recognized a write-down of $1,697,394 attributable to impairment of goodwill of CDI due to a short-fall in the actual overall financial performance of CDI as compared to plan, a recurring need for working capital, and a decrease in the overall Company’s stock price.  There was no such impairment charge in 2020.

Marketing and selling expense

 

Marketing and selling expense decreased $1,017,984 or 19.8% during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year 2019.  OSS had a decrease of $1,025,309 or 100.7% of the total decrease attributable to reductions in travel, advertising and tradeshows associated with constraints imposed by COVID-19 restrictions.  Bressner saw a modest increase of $7,325 or 0.7%. Overall, total marketing and selling expense decreased as a percentage of revenue to 7.9% during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 8.8% during the same period in 2019.

Research and development expense

 

Research and development expense decreased $523,795 or 10.8% during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year.  OSS saw a decrease of $534,461 or 102% of the decrease.  The decrease was largely driven by cost reduction efforts implemented in quarter two of the current year.  This reduction was offset by an increase of $10,666 or 0.2% at Bressner. Overall, there was no change to the total research and development expense as a percentage of revenue as compared to the prior year with both years at 8.3% of revenue.

Interest income

Interest income increased $267,266 for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year 2019.  The increase is attributable to increased finance charges on outstanding accounts receivable balances from our largest customer in the media and entertainment industry.

Interest expense

 

Interest expense increased $385,214 for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to same period in 2019.  On April 24, 2020, the Company borrowed $3,000,000 through a senior secured convertible debt offering issued with a 10% original issue discount and incurred legal costs associated with this debt offering.  The interest and the professional fees incurred on securing the debt are being amortized on an effective interest rate basis to interest expense.

 

Other income (expense), net

Other income (expense), for the year ended December 31, 2020 resulted in net expenses of $53,612 as compared to net other income of $130,381 in the prior year 2019, for a net change of $183,993.  The majority of the decrease is a reduction in foreign currency transactions gains and losses.

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

 

We have recorded an income tax (benefit) provision of $(603,744) and $237,252, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.  The effective tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 differs from the statutory rate mainly due to permanent non-deductible goodwill amortization for Bressner Technology GmbH, income from the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income inclusion for 2019 only, deductions related to expenses of OSS stock options, as

44


well as projecting federal, foreign and state tax liabilities for the year.  The effective tax rate for 2020 is 98.9% as compared to 35.7% in the prior year.

Liquidity and capital resources

 

Given our recent operating losses, the Company’s primary sources of liquidity have been provided by (i) the Company’s February 2018 initial public offering (net proceeds were approximately $16,100,000); (ii) March 2019 notes payable from members of the Board of Directors and others of $1,500,000; (iii) the July 2019 sale of 1,554,546 shares of the Company’s common stock for net cash proceeds of $2,488,148; (iv) the April 24, 2020 sale of $3,000,000 of Senior Secured Convertible Promissory Notes issued at a 10% original issue discount; (v) receipt of approximately $1,500,000 on April 28, 2020 of government loan proceeds under the Paycheck Protection Program; and (vi) a receipt of approximately $9,250,000 on March 3, 2021 in a registered direct offering.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents were $6,316,921 and working capital was $16,266,293.  Cash and cash equivalents held by Bressner totaled $1,062,818 (USD) at December 31, 2020, and Bressner’s debt covenants do not permit the use of those funds by its parent company. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company experienced an operating loss of $424,281, with cash used in operating activities of $250,173.  During the year, our largest customer, engaged in the media and entertainment industry, was having significant financial hardships attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic and as a result had been slow in paying their outstanding account receivables. The Company formulated a plan whereby extended payment terms were made available, and our customer is now current, having paid down their past-due outstanding account receivables and are presently honoring their credit terms.  

 

Our sources of liquidity and cash flows are used to fund ongoing operations, research and development projects for new products and technologies, and provide ongoing support services for our customers. Over the next two fiscal years, we anticipate that we will use our liquidity and cash flows from our operations to fund our growth. In addition, as part of our business strategy, we occasionally evaluate potential acquisitions of businesses and products and technologies. Accordingly, a portion of our available cash may be used at any time for the acquisition of complementary products or businesses. Such potential transactions may require substantial capital resources, which may require us to seek additional debt or equity financing. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions, integrate acquired businesses into our current operations, or expand into new markets. Furthermore, we cannot provide assurances that additional financing will be available to us in any required time frame and on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.

The Company’s revenue growth during the year has slowed due to the effects of COVID-19.   However, resulting from a reduction in force and strict cost containment, the Company has been able to mitigate the effects, to some degree, of the reduced revenue.  For a further description and risk factors associated with COVID-19, please see Part 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Management’s plans are to continue its efforts towards responding to the changing economic landscape attributable to COVID-19, to restructure the Company with the primary objectives of reducing costs, conserving cash, strengthening margins, and improving company-wide execution.  Specific actions already implemented by management include a reduction in force, a limited freeze on hiring, reduced work week, minimizing overtime, travel and entertainment, and contractor costs.  On April 7, 2020, the Company implemented a cost reduction plan which included the termination of certain employees and elimination of certain costs.

While management expects these actions to result in prospective cost reductions, management is also committed to securing debt and/or equity financing to ensure that liquidity will be sufficient to meet the Company’s cash requirements through at least a period of the next twelve months. Management believes potential sources of liquidity include at least the following:     

 

In May 2019, the Company filed a Form S-3 prospectus with the Securities and Exchange Commission which became effective on June 19, 2019, and allows the Company to offer up to $100,000,000 aggregate dollar amount of shares of its common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase its common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase its common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and\or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that the Company will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.

45


 

On April 24, 2020, the Company completed a $6.0 million debt financing on a non-interest bearing convertible note with a 10% original issue discount.  The first tranche of $3.0 million was received on April 27, 2020, with an additional $3.0 million available seven months from the date of closing at the option of the Company conditioned upon meeting certain requirements which have been satisfied.  The note is repayable in twenty-two installments beginning three months after closing in cash or shares of the Company’s common stock. 

 

On March 1, 2021, the Company entered into a definitive agreement with an institutional investor for the purchase and sale of 1,497,006 shares of common stock at a purchase price of $6.68 in a registered direct offering priced At-The-Market under Nasdaq rules.  Total estimated proceeds are $9,250,000 after commissions and offering costs.

As a result of management’s cost reduction plans, the Company’s potential sources of liquidity and management’s most recent cash flow forecasts, management believes that the Company has sufficient liquidity to satisfy its anticipated working capital requirements for its ongoing operations and obligations for at least the next twelve months. However, there can be no assurance that management’s cost reduction efforts will be effective or the forecasted cash flows will be achieved. Furthermore, the Company shall continue to evaluate its capital expenditure needs based upon factors including but not limited to the Company’s sales from operations, growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of the Company’s sales and marketing, the timing of new product introductions, and the continuing market acceptance of the Company’s products and services. If cash generated from operations is insufficient to satisfy the Company’s capital requirements, the Company may open a revolving line of credit with a bank, or it may have to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain expanded credit facilities to fund its operating expenses, pay its obligations, diversify its geographical reach, and grow the Company. In the event such financing is needed in the future, there can be no assurance that such financing will be available to the Company, or, if available, that it will be in amounts and on terms acceptable to the Company. If the Company cannot raise additional funds when it needs or wants them, the Company’s operations and prospects could be negatively affected. However, if cash flows from operations become insufficient to continue operations at the current level, and if no additional financing were obtained, then management would restructure the Company in a way to preserve its business while maintaining expenses within operating cash flows.

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December 31,

 

Cash flows:

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities

 

$

(250,173

)

 

$

2,374,868

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

$

(818,794

)

 

$

(2,385,177

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

$

2,109,235

 

 

$

2,922,101

 

Operating Activities

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we used $250,173 in cash from operating activities, a decrease of $2,625,041 when compared to the cash generated in operating activities of $2,374,868 during the year 2019. This use of operating cash and the change from the prior year is mostly attributable to a decrease in revenue attributable to a COVID-19 economic environment.  The economic effect from COVID-19 directly affected our revenue with our largest customer and caused an increase in the use of working capital in the financing of inventory due to longer lead-times.

The decrease in cash generated by operating activities was primarily a result of an increase in working capital requirements of $1,936,267, an improvement in net loss of $893,793, offset by a decrease in non-cash adjustments of $1,582,567.  Non-cash adjustments include increases of $1,033,653 loss on disposal of property and equipment, the provision for bad debt, depreciation, inventory reserves, amortization of debt discount and stock-based compensation expense.  These increases were offset by $2,616,218 in decreases in non-cash adjustments attributable to deferred taxes, impairment of goodwill, warranty reserves, amortization of deferred gain, and amortization.

Working capital requirements increase overall by $1,936,267.  The source of working capital of $5,451,890 was attributable to reductions in accounts receivable for the comparable period.  This source was offset by uses of working capital of $7,388,157 due to increased inventory levels, and prepaid expense and other current assets and reductions in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities.

Our ability to generate cash from operations in future periods will depend in large part on our profitability, the rate and timing of collections of our accounts receivable, our inventory turns and our ability to manage other areas of working capital including accounts payable.

46


Investing Activities

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company used cash of $818,794 in investing activities as compared to $2,385,177 used during the prior year 2019, a decrease of $1,566,383. The main projects for the year 2020, were the continued enhancement of our ERP system, the purchase of test equipment for the engineering department, and demo equipment for the sales and marketing department.  The expenditures in the prior year 2019 are primarily due to tenant improvements to our headquarter facility and software costs and external consulting costs associated with the implementation of our ERP system for which phase one of the project was substantially completed in 2020.  We currently do not anticipate any other significant purchases of equipment or expansion of our ERP system beyond completion of phase II of the project, which is the integration of certain sales functions.  

Financing Activities

Given the economic and financial hardships operating in a COVID-19 environment, the Company believed it to be imperative to secure additional financial resources to ensure financial stability during trying economic times.  Therefore, during the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company obtained liquidity through two new debt instruments.  During the year ended December 31, 2020, we generated $2,109,235 from financing activities as compared to the cash generated of $2,922,101 during the year 2019.  During 2020, the Company entered into a $3.0 million, two-year senior secured convertible debt offering with a 10% original issue discount and received net proceeds of $2,383,726 after payment of professional fees.  The Company also received proceeds from a federal Paycheck Protection Program of $1,499,360, and proceeds of $181,892 from the exercise of warrants and stock options.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company raised $1,500,000 from individuals and related parties through the issuance of notes payable that bear interest at an annual rate of 9.5% and are repaid through 24 months monthly installments.  Additionally, during the third quarter of the year, the Company sold 1,554,832 shares of common stock for total gross proceeds of $2,700,714, which after commissions to brokers and other expenses resulted in net proceeds to the Company of $2,488,148.  The Company also received proceeds of $47,334 from the exercise of warrants and stock options.

Contractual obligations and commitments

The following table sets forth our non-cancellable contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020.

 

Contractual Obligations:

 

Total

 

 

Less than 1 year

 

 

1-3 years

 

 

3-5 years

 

 

More than 5 Years

 

Notes payable

 

$

5,664,188

 

 

$

3,619,374

 

 

$

2,044,814

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

Operating leases

 

 

1,351,868

 

 

 

526,339

 

 

 

825,529

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Total

 

$

7,016,056

 

 

$

4,145,713

 

 

$

2,870,343

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

We have made certain indemnities, under which the Company may be required to make payments to an indemnified party, in relation to certain transactions.  We indemnify our directors, officers, employees and agents to the maximum extent permitted under the laws of the State of Delaware.  In connection with our facilities leases, we indemnify our lessors for certain claims arising from the use of our facilities.  The duration of the indemnities varies, and in many cases is indefinite.  These indemnities do not provide for any limitation of the maximum potential future payments we could be obligated to make.  Historically, we have not been obligated to make any payments for these obligations and no liabilities have been recorded for these indemnities.

Known trends or uncertainties

 

Although we have not seen any significant reduction in revenues to date due to consolidations, we have seen some consolidation in our industry during economic downturns. These consolidations have not had a negative effect on our total sales; however, should consolidations and downsizing in the industry continue to occur, those events could adversely impact our revenues and earnings going forward.

 

As discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the world has been affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Until the pandemic has passed, there remains uncertainty as to the effect of COVID-19 on our business in both the short and long-term.

47


We believe that the need for improved productivity in the research and development activities directed toward developing new products and/or software will continue to result in increasing adoption of high-performance computers and interconnect technologies such as those we produce. New product and/or software developments in the specialized compute business segment could result in increased revenues and earnings if they are accepted by our markets; however, there can be no assurances that new products and/or software will result in significant improvements to revenues or earnings. For competitive reasons, we do not disclose all of our new product development activities.

  

Also, the potential for growth in new markets is uncertain. We will continue to explore these opportunities until such time as we either generate sales or determine that resources would be more efficiently used elsewhere.

 

Inflation

 

We have not been affected materially by inflation during the periods presented, but we may experience some effect in the near future due to trade tariffs imposed on certain products from China and increased product pricing due to semiconductor product shortages.

Off balance sheet arrangements

Other than lease commitments incurred in the normal course of business and certain indemnification provisions, we do not have any off-balance sheet financing arrangements or liabilities, guarantee contracts, retained or contingent interests in transferred assets, or any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity.

We do not have any majority-owned subsidiaries that are not consolidated in the financial statements. Additionally, we do not have an interest in, or relationships with, any special purpose entities.

Stockholder transactions

In 2016, we entered into a management services agreement with a company owned by the former Chief Executive Officer of Magma.  Payments for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $0 and $21,875, respectively. Such management services agreement has been now fully completed.

In April 2019, certain members of the Company’s Board of Directors executed definitive agreements to commit funds of up to $4,000,000 as a credit facility. The Company initially borrowed $1,150,000 from members of the Board of Directors and $350,000 from other shareholders for a two year period at an interest rate of 9.5% which requires the Company to make monthly principal and interest payment of $69,000 per month. In connection with these loans, the Company issued to the note holders warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock equal to 10% of the original principal as a price per share equal to $2.15 per share.  Accordingly, the Company issued to the note holders warrants to purchase 69,766 shares of the Company’s common stock.  The relative fair value of the warrants issued was $60,158.

Critical accounting policies and estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.  The critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgments that we believe have the most significant impact on our consolidated financial statements are described below.

Revenue Recognition

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the new accounting standard update ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which superseded nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP, to all contracts using the modified retrospective method. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.

48


The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as work is performed or at a point in time. The majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when products ship and control is transferred to the customer. The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps: (i) identification of the contract with a customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied.

 

The Company’s contracts are executed through a combination of written agreements along with purchase orders with all customers including certain general terms and conditions. Generally, purchase orders entail products, quantities and prices, which define the performance obligations of each party and are approved and accepted by the Company. The Company’s contracts with customers do not include extended payment terms. Payment terms vary by contract type and type of customer and generally range from 30 to 60 days from invoice. Additionally, taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer and deposited with the relevant government authority, are excluded from revenue.

 

The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to the customer adjusted for estimated variable consideration, if any.  Variable consideration may include discounts, rights of return, refunds, and other similar obligations. The Company allocates the transaction price to each distinct product and service based on its relative standalone selling price. The standalone selling price for products primarily involves the cost to produce the deliverable plus the anticipated margin and for services is estimated based on the Company’s approved list price.

In the normal course of business, the Company does not accept product returns unless the items are defective as manufactured. The Company establishes provisions for estimated returns and warranties. In addition, the Company does not typically provide customers with the right to a refund and does not transact for noncash consideration.

 

Customer agreements include one vendor managed inventory program. The Company recognizes revenue under this arrangement when all of the following criteria are met: (i) the goods have been identified separately as belonging to the customer; (ii) the goods are ready for physical shipment to the customer; (iii) the Company does not have the ability to direct the goods to another customer; and (iv) the arrangement was requested by the customer and that the customer has sufficiently explained a substantial business purpose for the arrangement.  Management also considers whether the customer's custodial risks are insured and whether modifications to the Company's normal billing and credit terms were required.

Revenues on certain fixed-price contracts where we provide engineering services, prototypes and completed products are recognized based upon percentage of completion or based upon milestones delivered that are provided during the period and compared to milestone goals to be provided over the entire contract. These services require that we perform significant, extensive and complex design, development, modification or implementation of our customers’ systems. Performance will often extend over long periods of time, and our right to receive future payment depends on our future performance in accordance with the agreement.

The percentage-of-completion methodology involves recognizing probable and reasonably estimable revenue using the percentage of services completed, on a current cumulative cost to estimated total cost basis, using a reasonably consistent profit margin over the performance period. Due to the long-term nature of these projects, developing the estimates of costs often requires significant judgment. Factors that must be considered in estimating the progress of work completed and ultimate cost of the projects include, but are not limited to, the availability of labor and labor productivity, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed and the impact of delayed performance. If changes occur in delivery, productivity or other factors used in developing the estimates of costs or revenues, we revise our cost and revenue estimates, which may result in increases or decreases in revenues and costs, and such revisions are reflected in earnings in the period in which the revision becomes known. 

49


The Company recognizes contract assets or unbilled receivables related to revenue recognized for services completed but not yet invoiced to the clients. Unbilled receivables are recorded as accounts receivable when the Company has an unconditional right to contract consideration. A contract liability is recognized as deferred revenue when the Company invoices clients in advance of performing the related services under the terms of a contract. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue when the Company has satisfied the related performance obligation.

 

On certain contracts with several of the Company’s significant customers, the Company receives payments in advance of manufacturing. Advanced payments are recorded as deferred revenue until the revenue recognition criteria described above has been met.  Related billings that are in excess of revenue earned are deferred and recorded as a liability on the consolidated balance sheet until the related services are provided.

Stock-Based Compensation

 

We measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based awards granted to our employees and other service providers, including stock options granted under the 2017 Plan and 2015 Stock Option Plan that was approved in December 2015 (the “2015 Plan”), based on the estimated fair value of the award. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock option awards granted under the 2017 Plan and 2015 Plan. We recognize the fair value of stock options granted under the 2017 Plan and 2015 Plan as stock-based compensation on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. We record expense net of anticipated forfeitures and adjust the annual expense based upon actual experience.  

Compensation cost for stock awards, which include restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service period. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date less the present value of expected dividends not received during the vesting period.

Our use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the fair value of the underlying common stock, expected term of the option, expected volatility of the price of our common stock, risk-free interest rates and the expected dividend yield of our common stock. The assumptions used in our option pricing model represent management’s best estimates. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. If factors change and different assumptions are used, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.  

These assumptions and estimates are as follows:  

 

Fair Value of Common Stock.  Since the completion of our IPO, we use the closing quoted price of our common stock on the date of grant.

 

Expected Term.  The expected term represents the period that our stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The expected term assumptions were determined based on the vesting terms and contractual lives of the options, using the simplified method.

 

Expected Volatility.  Since we do not have sufficient trading history of our common stock, the expected volatility was determined based on the historical stock volatilities of comparable companies. Comparable companies consist of public companies in our industry that is similar in size, stage of life cycle and financial leverage. We intend to continue to apply this process using the same or similar public companies until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own share price becomes available, or unless circumstances change such that the identified companies are no longer similar to us, in which case, more suitable companies whose share prices are publicly available would be used in the calculation.  

 

Risk-Free Interest Rate.  The risk-free interest rate is based on the implied yield available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with remaining terms similar to the expected term on the options.  

 

Dividend Rate.  We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and do not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and, therefore, use an expected dividend yield of zero.  

We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions related to our stock-based compensation on a prospective basis. As we continue to accumulate additional data related to our common stock, we may refine our estimation process, which could materially impact our future stock-based compensation expense.

50


Inventory Valuation

We value our inventory at the lower of cost or its estimated net realizable value.  We use the average cost method for purposes of determining cost, which approximates the first-in, first-out method. We write down inventory for excess and obsolescence based upon a review of historical usage and assumptions about future demand, product mix and possible alternative uses. Actual demand, product mix and alternative usage may be lower than those that we project, and this difference could have a material adverse effect on our gross margin if inventory write-downs beyond those initially recorded become necessary.  Alternatively, if actual demand, product mix and alternative usage are more favorable than those we estimated at the time of such a write-down, our gross margin could be favorably impacted in future periods.

 

Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Long-lived Assets

We evaluate our goodwill, intangible and long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances arise that indicate our goodwill, intangible and long-lived assets may be impaired. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant deterioration in overall economic conditions, a decline in our market capitalization, the loss of significant business, significant decreases in funding for our contracts, or other significant adverse changes in industry or market conditions.  Regardless, goodwill is tested for potential impairment at least annually.

 

Income Taxes

The determination of income tax expense requires us to make certain estimates and judgments concerning the calculation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, as well as the deductions and credits that are available to reduce taxable income. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in our consolidated financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.

In evaluating our ability to recover deferred tax assets, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our past operating results, our forecast of future earnings, future taxable income, and tax planning strategies. The assumptions utilized in determining future taxable income require significant judgment. We record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset will be used for which a reserve has been provided, we reverse the related valuation allowance. If our actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction differs from estimates, additional allowances or reversals of reserves may be necessary.

We use a two-step approach to recognize and measure uncertain tax positions. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood that it will be sustained upon external examination. If the tax position is deemed more-likely-than-not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of the benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We reevaluate our uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis and any changes to these positions as a result of tax audits, tax laws or other facts and circumstances could result in additional charges to operations.

Business Combinations

We utilize the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations and allocate the purchase price of an acquisition to the various tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. We primarily establish fair value using the income approach based upon a discounted cash flow model. The income approach requires the use of many assumptions and estimates including future revenues and expenses, as well as discount factors and income tax rates. Other estimates include:

 

estimated step-ups or write-downs for fixed assets and inventory;

 

estimated fair values of intangible assets; and

 

estimated income tax assets and liabilities assumed from the target.

While we use our best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the business acquisition date, our estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the purchase price allocation period, which is generally no longer than one year from the business acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill.

51


For changes in the valuation of intangible assets between preliminary and final purchase price allocation, the related amortization is adjusted in the period it occurs. Subsequent to the purchase price allocation period any adjustment to assets acquired or liabilities assumed is included in operating results in the period in which the adjustment is determined.  Should we issue shares of our common stock in an acquisition, we will be required to estimate the fair value of the shares issued.

 

Recently implemented accounting pronouncements

Per the Company’s consolidated financial statements Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies, we have implemented a number of changes, as required by FASB.  See Note 2 for further details.

 

Recent accounting pronouncements

Per the Company’s consolidated financial statements Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies, we may be implementing a number of changes, as required by FASB.  See Note 2 for further details.

 

Interest rate risk

Our exposure to interest rate risk is primarily associated with borrowing on revolving lines of credit denominated in both U.S. dollars and Euros.  We are exposed to the impact of interest rate changes primarily through our borrowing activities for our variable rate borrowings.

 

Concentration of credit risk

Financial instruments that potentially expose us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable. We place our cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions with high credit quality. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had $6,316,921 and $5,185,321, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents on deposit or invested with our financial and lending institutions.  In Germany, the deposit insurance is €100,000 per bank, per customer.  Bressner has funds on deposit in both Euro and U.S. dollar denominations of €669,160 (US$818,256) with banks in excess of the insurance limits.

We provide credit to our customers in the normal course of business. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers’ financial condition and limit the amount of credit extended when deemed necessary.

 

Foreign currency risk

We operate primarily in the United States.  Foreign sales of products and services are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars.  We also conduct business outside the United States through our foreign subsidiary in Germany, where business is largely transacted in non-U.S. dollar currencies particularly the Euro, which is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.  Accordingly, we are subject to exposure from changes in the exchange rates of local currencies. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.

OSS GmbH operates as an extension of OSS’ domestic operations which acquired Bressner Technology GmbH in October 2018.  The functional currency of OSS GmbH is the Euro. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are remeasured to the functional currency at the average exchange rate in effect during the period.  At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities are translated using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Consequently, changes in the exchange rates of the currencies may impact the translation of the foreign subsidiaries’ statements of operations into U.S. dollars, which may in turn affect our consolidated statement of operations. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss).

Derivative financial instruments

We employ derivatives to manage certain currency market risks through the use of foreign exchange forward contracts. We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. Our derivatives are designated as a hedge of a forecasted transaction or of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (cash flow hedge). We hedge a portion of the exchange risk involved in anticipation of highly probable foreign currency-denominated transactions. In anticipation of these transactions, we enter into foreign exchange contracts to provide currency at a fixed rate.

52


 

Non-GAAP financial measures

Adjusted EBITDA

We believe that the use of adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, or adjusted EBITDA, is helpful for an investor to assess the performance of the Company.  The Company defines adjusted EBITDA as income (loss) attributable to common stockholders before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, acquisition expense, impairment of long-lived assets, financing costs, fair value adjustments from purchase accounting, stock-based compensation expense and expenses related to discontinued operations.

 

Adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of financial performance under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. Because of varying available valuation methodologies, subjective assumptions and the variety of equity instruments that can impact a company’s non-cash operating expenses, we believe that providing a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes non-cash and non-recurring expenses allows for meaningful comparisons between our core business operating results and those of other companies, as well as providing us with an important tool for financial and operational decision making and for evaluating our own core business operating results over different periods of time.

 

Our adjusted EBITDA measure may not provide information that is directly comparable to that provided by other companies in our industry, as other companies in our industry may calculate non-GAAP financial results differently, particularly related to non-recurring and unusual items. Our adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of financial performance under GAAP, and should not be considered as an alternative to operating income or as an indication of operating performance or any other measure of performance derived in accordance with GAAP. We do not consider adjusted EBITDA to be a substitute for, or superior to, the information provided by GAAP financial results.

 

 

 

For the Year

Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(6,544

)

 

$

(900,337

)

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

1,606,532

 

 

 

1,655,288

 

Amortization of deferred gain

 

 

(53,838

)

 

 

(28,555

)

Impairment of goodwill

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,697,394

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

724,378

 

 

 

649,469

 

Interest income

 

 

(418,379

)

 

 

(151,113

)

Interest expense

 

 

550,774

 

 

 

165,560

 

Costs resulting from dissolution of SkyScale

 

 

-

 

 

 

(146,150

)

Acquisition expenses (1)

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,075

 

(Benefit) provision for income taxes

 

 

(603,744

)

 

 

237,252

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$

1,799,179

 

 

$

3,182,883

 

 

(1)

Expenses incurred in the acquisition of Bressner.

Adjusted EPS

Adjusted EPS excludes the impact of certain items and, therefore, has not been calculated in accordance with GAAP. We believe that exclusion of certain selected items assists in providing a more complete understanding of our underlying results and trends and allows for comparability with our peer company index and industry. We use this measure along with the corresponding GAAP financial measures to manage our business and to evaluate our performance compared to prior periods and the marketplace. The Company defines non-GAAP (loss) income attributable to common stockholders as (loss) or income before amortization, stock-based compensation, expenses related to discontinued operations, and acquisition costs.  Adjusted EPS expresses adjusted (loss) income on a per share basis using weighted average diluted shares outstanding.

Adjusted EPS is a non-GAAP financial measure and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information provided in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures may not be computed in the same manner as similarly titled measures used by other companies. We expect to continue to incur expenses similar to the adjusted income from continuing operations and adjusted EPS financial adjustments described above, and investors should not infer from our presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures that these costs are unusual, infrequent or non-recurring.

53


The following table reconciles net loss attributable to common stockholders and diluted earnings per share:

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(6,544

)

 

$

(900,337

)

Amortization of intangibles

 

 

683,935

 

 

 

984,065

 

Impairment of goodwill

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,697,394

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

724,378

 

 

 

649,469

 

Cost resulting from dissolution of SkyScale

 

 

-

 

 

 

(146,150

)

Acquisition expenses

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,075

 

Non-GAAP net income attributable to common stockholders

 

$

1,401,769

 

 

$

2,288,516

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-GAAP net income per share attributable to

   common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.08