Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

v3.20.1
Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies

NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosures of contingent assets, liabilities, and expenses at the date of the consolidated financial statements during the reporting period.  

Significant estimates made by management include, among others, the fair value of acquired net assets of CDI in August 2018 with reevaluation in April 2019, and Bressner Technology GmbH in October 2018, the allowance for doubtful accounts, fair value of stock options, recoverability of inventories and long-lived assets, and realizability of deferred tax assets.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

Concentration Risks

 

At times, deposits held with financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), which provides basic deposit coverage with limits up to $250,000 per owner.  As of March 31, 2020, the Company had $2,169,502 in excess of the insurance limits.  The Company has not experienced any such losses in these accounts.  In Germany, the deposit insurance is €100,000 per bank, per customer.  As of March 31, 2020, Bressner has €443,844 (US$489,275) on deposit with banks in excess of the insurance limits.

 

In the three month periods ended March 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company has one customer which represented greater than 10% of the Company’s revenue.  Collectively, this customer represented approximately 27%, and 26% of revenue, respectively.  As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, one customer accounted for 59% and 45% of net trade accounts receivables, respectively.

 

The Company made purchases from certain suppliers of which each supplier was greater than 10% of the Company’s total vendor purchases on an annual basis.  Collectively these vendors represented approximately 17% and 30% of purchases for the three month periods ended March 31, 2020, and 2019, respectively.  

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit and money market accounts.  The Company considers all highly liquid temporary cash investments with an initial maturity of 90 days or less when acquired to be cash equivalents.  Management believes that the carrying amounts of cash equivalents approximate their fair value because of the short maturity period.

 

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are presented at net realizable value.  This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable and unbilled receivables.   Unbilled receivables include costs and gross profit earned in excess of billings.  The allowance for doubtful accounts is an estimate to cover the losses resulting from the inability of customers to make payments on their outstanding balances and unbilled receivables.  In estimating the required allowance, management considers the overall quality and aging of the accounts receivable, specific customer circumstances, current economic trends, and historical experience with collections.  At March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $11,518, and $14,000, respectively.

 

Revenues earned in excess of related billings are recorded as an asset on the balance sheet as unbilled receivables.  Unbilled receivables as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, were $214 and $25,432, respectively.

Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value.  The Company uses the average cost method for purposes of determining cost, which approximates the first-in, first-out method.

The Company establishes reserves on its inventories to write-down the carrying value of its estimated obsolete or excess inventories to estimated net realizable value based upon observations of historical usage and assumptions about future demand and market conditions.  In addition, the Company considers changes in the market value of components in determining the net realizable value of its inventory.  Inventory reserves are not typically reversed until the specific inventories are sold or otherwise disposed.

 

Actual demand, product mix and alternative usage may be lower than those that we project and this difference could have a material adverse effect on our gross margin if inventory write-downs beyond those initially recorded become necessary.  Alternatively, if actual demand, product mix and alternative usage are more favorable than those we estimated at the time of such a write-down, our gross margin could be favorably impacted in future periods.

 

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment, other than leasehold improvements, are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are recorded at cost and are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the estimated useful life of the related asset.  Tooling and test equipment includes capitalized labor costs associated with the development of the related tooling and test equipment.  Costs incurred for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred, and expenditures for major replacements and improvements are capitalized. Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation and amortization of disposed assets are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in other income (expense), net.

Goodwill

 

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price paid over the fair value of the net assets acquired in business combinations. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least annually or when we deem that a triggering event has occurred.  The Company reviews goodwill for impairment annually on December 31.  The Company completed its annual assessment for goodwill impairment and determined that goodwill is not impaired as of December 31, 2019 and no adjustment was required.  

 

In April 2019, the Company performed an impairment test of goodwill, as a result of a short-fall in the actual overall financial performance of CDI as compared to plan, a recurring need for working capital, and a decrease in the Company’s stock price.  As a result of this interim evaluation, the Company recorded an impairment loss to goodwill of $1,697,394, which was charged to operating expenses during the second quarter of 2019.

 

 

Intangible Assets and Long-lived Assets

 

We evaluate our intangible and long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances arise that indicate our intangible and long-lived assets may be impaired. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant deterioration in overall economic conditions, a decline in our market capitalization, the loss of significant business, significant decreases in funding for our contracts, or other significant adverse changes in industry or market conditions. The Company completed its qualitative assessment for impairment in December 2019 and determined that there was no impairment as of December 31, 2019.  There were no events or circumstances that arose during the three month period ended March 31, 2020, that gave an indication of impairment. There can be no assurance, however, that market conditions will not change or demand for the Company’s products will continue, which could result in an impairment of intangible and long-lived assets in the future.

Fair Value Measurements

 

The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy to classify and disclose all assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, as well as assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, in periods subsequent to their initial measurement.  These tiers include:

 

Level 1, defined as quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

Level 2, defined as inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and

 

Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.

The carrying value of financial instruments including cash and cash equivalents accounts receivable and accounts payable and accrued expenses, lines of credit, and other liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.  Assets and liabilities assumed in the acquisition of  the Ion software, Concept Development Inc., and Bressner Technology GmbH were recorded at fair value based upon the Company’s market assumptions which approximated carrying value (except for acquired intangible assets – Note 3) due to the short-term nature of the instruments.  The carrying amounts of the Company’s notes payable and Bressner’s existing lines of credit and notes payable approximate their fair values at the stated interest rates and are reflective of the prevailing market rates.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the new accounting standard update ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which superseded nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP, to all contracts using the modified retrospective method. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.  

 

The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as work is performed or at a point in time. The majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when products ship and control is transferred to the customer. The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps: (1) identification of the contract with a customer; (2) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determination of the transaction price; (4) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied.

 

The Company’s contracts are executed through a combination of written agreements along with purchase orders with all customers including certain general terms and conditions. Generally, purchase orders entail products, quantities and prices, which define the performance obligations of each party and are approved and accepted by the Company. The Company’s contracts with customers do not include extended payment terms. Payment terms vary by contract type and type of customer and generally range from 30 to 60 days from invoice. Additionally, taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer and deposited with the relevant government authority, are excluded from revenue.

 

The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to the customer adjusted for estimated variable consideration, if any.  Variable consideration may include discounts, rights of return, refunds, and other similar obligations. The Company allocates the transaction price to each distinct product and service based on its relative standalone selling price. The standalone selling price for products primarily involves the cost to produce the deliverable plus the anticipated margin and for services is estimated based on the Company’s approved list price.

In the normal course of business, the Company does not accept product returns unless the items are defective as manufactured. The Company establishes provisions for estimated returns and warranties. In addition, the Company does not typically provide customers with the right to a refund and does not transact for noncash consideration.

 

Customer agreements include one vendor managed inventory program. The Company recognizes revenue under this arrangement when all of the following criteria are met: (i) the goods have been identified separately as belonging to the customer; (ii) the goods are ready for physical shipment to the customer; (iii) the Company does not have the ability to direct the goods to another customer; and (iv) the arrangement was requested by the customer and that the customer has sufficiently explained a substantial business purpose for the arrangement.  Management also considers whether the customer's custodial risks are insured and whether modifications to the Company's normal billing and credit terms were required.

The Company recorded revenue from product sales that are held in vendor managed inventory under these agreements of $3,179,943 and $1,494,078 during the three month periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, $1,329,057 and $459,893, respectively, of product sold through those dates were held by the Company in the vendor management program.

Revenues on certain fixed-price contracts where we provide engineering services, prototypes and completed products are recognized based upon percentage of completion or based upon milestones delivered that are provided during the period and compared to milestone goals to be provided over the entire contract. These services require that we perform significant, extensive and complex design, development, modification or implementation of our customers’ systems. Performance will often extend over long periods of time, and our right to receive future payment depends on our future performance in accordance with the agreement.

The percentage-of-completion methodology involves recognizing probable and reasonably estimable revenue using the percentage of services completed, on a current cumulative cost to estimated total cost basis, using a reasonably consistent profit margin over the performance period. Due to the long-term nature of these projects, developing the estimates of costs often requires significant judgment. Factors that must be considered in estimating the progress of work completed and ultimate cost of the projects include, but are not limited to, the availability of labor and labor productivity, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed and the impact of delayed performance. If changes occur in delivery, productivity or other factors used in developing the estimates of costs or revenues, we revise our cost and revenue estimates, which may result in increases or decreases in revenues and costs, and such revisions are reflected in earnings in the period in which the revision becomes known.

 

During the three month periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, revenue recognized on a fixed price contractual basis was $73,750 and $43,071, respectively.

 

The Company recognizes contract assets or unbilled receivables related to revenue recognized for services completed but not yet invoiced to the clients. Unbilled receivables are recorded as accounts receivable when the Company has an unconditional right to contract consideration. A contract liability is recognized as deferred revenue when the Company invoices clients in advance of performing the related services under the terms of a contract. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue when the Company has satisfied the related performance obligation.

 

On certain contracts with several of the Company’s significant customers, the Company receives payments in advance of manufacturing. Advanced payments are recorded as deferred revenue until the revenue recognition criteria described above has been met.

 

Related billings that are in excess of revenue earned are deferred and recorded as a liability on the consolidated balance sheet until the related services are provided. Deferred revenue was $12,359 and $24,718 as of March 31, 2020 and December 31 2019, respectively.

 

Remaining performance obligations represent the amount of revenue from fixed-fee contracts. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, approximately $0, attributable to cancellation of a contract, and $317,718, respectively of revenue from fixed-fee contracts that is expected to be recognized from these remaining performance obligations.  We elected to utilize the practical expedient exemption to exclude from this disclosure the amount of revenue from contracts which are not fixed-fee and where we do not have the right to invoice until the services have been performed.

The Company’s operating segment revenues disaggregated by primary geographic market, which is determined based on a customer’s geographic location, for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:

 

 

 

For The Three Month Period

Ended March 31, 2020

 

 

 

For The Three Month Period

Ended March 31, 2019

 

Entity:

 

Domestic

 

 

International

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Domestic

 

 

International

 

 

Total

 

Customized computers and flash

   arrays

 

$

6,207,898

 

 

$

1,610,380

 

 

$

7,818,278

 

 

 

$

2,042,510

 

 

$

3,187,576

 

 

$

5,230,086

 

In-flight entertainment &

   connectivity

 

 

529,406

 

 

 

92,540

 

 

 

621,946

 

 

 

 

296,529

 

 

 

2,925

 

 

 

299,454

 

Value-added reseller with

   minimal customization

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,919,413

 

 

 

4,919,413

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,528,359

 

 

 

4,528,359

 

 

 

$

6,737,304

 

 

$

6,622,333

 

 

$

13,359,637

 

 

 

$

2,339,039

 

 

$

7,718,860

 

 

$

10,057,899

 

Warranty Reserves

The Company offers product warranties that extend for one year from the date of sale. Such warranties are considered assurance-type warranties and therefore, they would not be deemed to be a separate performance obligation under ASC 606.  Such warranties require the Company to repair or replace defective product returned to the Company during the warranty period at no cost to the customer. The Company records an estimate for warranty‑related costs at the time of sale based on its historical and estimated future product return rates and expected repair or replacement costs (Note 7).  

While such costs have historically been within management’s expectations and the provisions established, unexpected changes in failure rates could have a material adverse impact on the Company, requiring additional warranty reserves and could adversely affect the Company’s gross profit and gross margins.

The Company offers customers extended warranties beyond the standard one-year warranty on the product.  The extended warranties are considered service-type warranties and would be considered as a separate performance obligation under ASC 606.  The Company is the primary obligor and, revenue is recognized on a gross basis ratably over the term of the extended warranty.  The customer can purchase extended warranties from one to five years, in the bronze, silver or gold categories.  This entails hardware repair or replacement, shipping methods on how the warranties will be returned / delivered, response times and hours of operations to receive support.  The amount of warranties sold for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were $92,724 and $80,123, respectively.

 

The revenue that was recognized for the warranties sold for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were $69,105 and $106,698, respectively. The Company does have recourse with some of its suppliers that offer more than a one-year guarantee on parts, but this is not standard.  The few that offer greater than a year warranty, the Company may be able to cover the cost of the part from the manufacturer for the failed part.  The amounts of these costs vary in a wide range, but are not material, due to the infrequency of failure.  As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, deferred revenue totaled $388,378 and $394,571, respectively.  The Company expects to recognize $388,378 of unearned revenue amounts from 2020 through 2024.

Shipping and Handling Costs

The Company's shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold for all periods presented.

 

Foreign Currency

 

We operate primarily in the United States.  Foreign sales of products and services are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars.  We also conduct business outside the United States through our foreign subsidiary in Germany, where business is largely transacted in non-U.S. dollar currencies, particularly the Euro, which is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.   Accordingly, we are subject to exposure from changes in the exchange rates of local currencies. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.

OSS GmbH operates as an extension of OSS’ domestic operations.  The functional currency of OSS GmbH is the Euro. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are remeasured to the functional currency at the average exchange rate in effect during the period.  At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Consequently, changes in the exchange rates of the currencies may impact the translation of the foreign subsidiaries’ statements of operations into U.S. dollars, which may in turn affect our consolidated statements of operations. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income in the consolidated balance sheets.

 

Derivative Financial Instruments

 

We employ derivatives to manage certain market risks through the use of foreign exchange forward contracts. We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. Our derivatives are designated as a hedge of a forecasted transaction or of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (cash flow hedge). We hedge a portion of the exchange risk involved in anticipation of highly probable foreign currency-denominated transactions. In anticipation of these transactions, we enter into foreign exchange contracts to provide currency at a fixed rate. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had no foreign exchange contracts outstanding.  

 

Unrealized gains on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are recorded at fair value as assets, and unrealized losses on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are recorded at fair value as liabilities. For derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion is reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income until reclassified into interest expense in the same period the hedged transaction affects earnings. The gain or loss on the ineffective portion is recognized as “Other income (expense) – net” in the consolidated statements of income in each period.

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for employee and director share-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation”.  Under ASC 718, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant).

 

All transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments to non-employees are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable.  The measurement date used to determine the estimated fair value of the equity instrument issued is the earlier of the date on which the third-party performance is complete or the date on which it is probable that performance will occur.

 

Employee and director stock-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the value of the portion of stock-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest during the period.  Given that stock-based compensation expense recognized in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, it has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. The Company’s estimated average forfeiture rates are based on historical forfeiture experience and estimated future forfeitures.

 

Compensation cost for stock awards, which include restricted stock units (“RSUs”), is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service period. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date.

 

The estimated fair value of common stock option awards is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires subjective assumptions regarding future stock price volatility and expected time to exercise, along with assumptions about the risk-free interest rate and expected dividends, all of which affect the estimated fair values of the Company’s common stock option awards.  The expected term of options granted is calculated using the simplified method, which is the weighted average vesting period and the contractual lives of the options.  

 

This calculation is based on a method acceptable in instances where the vesting and exercise terms of options granted meet certain conditions and where limited historical exercise data is available.  The expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the common stock of comparable public companies that operate in similar industries as the Company.

The risk-free rate selected to value any particular grant is based on the U.S. Treasury rate that corresponds to the expected term of the grant effective as of the date of the grant. The expected dividend assumption is based on the Company’s history and management’s expectation regarding dividend payouts. Compensation expense for common stock option awards with graded vesting schedules is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the last separately vesting portion of the award, provided that the accumulated cost recognized as of any date at least equals the value of the vested portion of the award.

If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying vested or unvested stock-based awards, the Company may be required to accelerate, increase or cancel any remaining unearned stock-based compensation expense, or record additional expense for vested stock-based awards. Future stock-based compensation expense and unearned stock- based compensation may increase to the extent that the Company grants additional common stock options or other stock-based awards.

 

Business Combinations

 

We utilize the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations and allocate the purchase price of an acquisition to the various tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. We primarily establish fair value using the income approach based upon a discounted cash flow model. The income approach requires the use of many assumptions and estimates including future revenues and expenses, as well as discount factors and income tax rates. Other estimates include:

 

 

Estimated step-ups or write-downs for fixed assets and inventory;

 

Estimated fair values of intangible assets; and

 

Estimated income tax assets and liabilities assumed from the target

While we use our best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the business acquisition date, our estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the purchase price allocation period, which is generally one year from the business acquisition date, we may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill.

For changes in the valuation of intangible assets between preliminary and final purchase price allocation, the related amortization is adjusted in the period it occurs. Subsequent to the purchase price allocation period, any adjustment to assets acquired or liabilities assumed is included in operating results in the period in which the adjustment is determined.  Should we issue shares of our common stock in an acquisition, we will be required to estimate the fair value of the shares issued. See Note 3.

 

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in marketing and selling expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.  Advertising costs for the three month periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were $122,092 and $130,922, respectively.  

 

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenditures are expensed in the period incurred.  Research and development expenses primarily consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation, as well as consulting expenses and allocated facilities and other overhead costs. Research and development activities include the development of new technologies, features and functionality in support of the Company’s products and customer needs.

 

Income Taxes

The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the consolidated financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.

Under ASC Topic 740, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority.  An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained.  Additionally, ASC Topic 740 provides requirements for derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.  The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.  

 

The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, California and Germany.  The Company has elected to treat the tax effect of Global Intangible Low Tax Income (“GILTI”) as a current-period expense when occurred.  The Company does not foresee material changes to its gross liability of uncertain tax positions within the next twelve months.

 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) was signed into law in March 2020. The CARES Act lifts certain deduction limitations originally imposed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (2017 Tax Act). Corporate taxpayers may carryback net operating losses (NOLs) originating during 2018 through 2020 for up to five years, which was not previously allowed under the 2017 Tax Act. The CARES Act also eliminates the 80% of taxable income limitations by allowing corporate entities to fully utilize NOL carryforwards to offset taxable income in 2018, 2019 or 2020. Taxpayers may generally deduct interest up to the sum of 50% of adjusted taxable income plus business interest income (30% limit under the 2017 Tax Act) for tax years beginning January 1, 2019 and 2020. The CARES Act allows taxpayers with alternative minimum tax credits to claim a refund in 2020 for the entire amount of the credits instead of recovering the credits through refunds over a period of years, as originally enacted by the 2017 Tax Act.

 

In addition, the CARES Act raises the corporate charitable deduction limit to 25% of taxable income and makes qualified improvement property generally eligible for 15-year cost-recovery and 100% bonus depreciation. The enactment of the CARES Act resulted in two adjustments to our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2020, relating to a projected 2018 NOL utilization and tax benefits from NOL carrybacks. We have recorded a discrete benefit of $100,000 in our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2020 related to the CARES Act.

 

Interest Expense

Interest expense consists primarily of interest associated with the Company’s issued debt including the amortization of debt discounts.  The Company recognizes the amortization of debt discounts and the amortization of interest costs using a straight-line method which approximates the effective interest method.

 

Net Income (Loss) Per Share

Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted-average shares and dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Dilutive potential shares consist of dilutive shares issuable and the exercise or vesting of outstanding stock options and warrants, respectively, computed using the treasury stock method. During a period where a net loss is incurred, dilutive potential shares are excluded from the computation of dilutive net loss per share, as inclusion is anti-dilutive.   

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”).  Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term.  ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within fiscal year 2022.  Early application is permitted.  Lessees must apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements.  The modified retrospective approach would not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented.  Lessees may not apply a full retrospective transition approach.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.  Based on our preliminary analysis, management expects the Company’s assets and liabilities to increase by the present value of the lease payments disclosed in Note 11.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The amendments in this update clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is effective for the Company for the year ended December 31, 2019 and interim reporting periods within 2020. The effect of the adoption of this guidance did not significantly impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In September 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Stock-based Compensation: Improvements to Nonemployee Share-based Payment Accounting, which amends the existing accounting standards for share-based payments to nonemployees. This ASU aligns much of the guidance on measuring and classifying nonemployee awards with that of awards to employees. Under the new guidance, the measurement of nonemployee equity awards is fixed on the grant date. This ASU becomes effective for the year ending December 31, 2020 (and interim periods in 2021) and early adoption is permitted but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. Entities will apply the ASU by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the annual period of adoption. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2018-07 will have on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

Recently Implemented Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in FASB Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. ASU 2014-09 implements a five-step process for customer contract revenue recognition that focuses on transfer of control, as opposed to transfer of risk and rewards.  This guidance provides a single, comprehensive accounting model for revenue arising from contracts with customers. This guidance supersedes most of the existing revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. Under this model, revenue is recognized at an amount that a company expects to be entitled to upon transferring control of goods or services to a customer, as opposed to when risks and rewards transfer to a customer. The new guidance also requires additional disclosures about the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flow arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments. We adopted this standard beginning January 1, 2019 and used the modified retrospective method of adoption. Under the new guidance, based on the nature of our contracts, we continued to recognize revenue in a similar manner as with the former guidance. Additionally, we expect the unit of accounting, that is, the identification of performance obligations, will be consistent with current revenue guidance. Accordingly, the adoption of this standard did not significantly impact our revenues.  

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”), which is intended to reduce the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted, provided that all of the amendments are adopted in the same period. The Company’s adoption of this guideline did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.